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Test bank for Understanding Homeland Security 2nd Edition by Gus Martin

Test bank for Understanding Homeland Security 2nd Edition by Gus Martin

This textbook offers much-needed insight into the complex nature of issues addressed by the homeland security enterprise. It addresses such subject areas as emergency management, terrorism, criminal justice administration, intelligence, armed conflict, and social environments. The pedagogical approach is designed to stimulate critical thinking in readers, allowing them to not only comprehend the fundamentals, but also evolve with the very dynamic nature of homeland security.

Table of contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction and Rationale
Part I. Foundations of Homeland Security
Chapter 1. History and Policy: Defining Homeland Security
The Past as Prologue: The Historical Context of Homeland Security
External Threats to the Early Republic
Domestic Threats to the Early Republic
Modern Precursors to Homeland Security
Defining an Era: What Is Homeland Security?
Chapter Perspective 1.1: The Death of Osama bin Laden
The Modern Era of Homeland Security
Chapter Perspective 1.2: Homeland Security Presidential Directives
Conceptual Foundation: Central Attributes of Homeland Security
The Homeland Security Environment: A Dynamic Construct
A New Focus: The Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report
Domestic Security and Threats to the Homeland: Policy Options
Chapter Perspective 1.3: The Symbolism of Targets: Terrorist Attacks Against the United States
Domestic Policy Options
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 2. Homeland Security and the All-Hazards Umbrella
The Terrorism Nexus: Conventional and Unconventional Hazards
Conventional Weapons
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive Hazards
The All-Hazards Nexus: Nonterrorist Threats
Background: Recent Difficulties in Disaster Relief
All-Hazards Emergency Management: Core Concepts
Case in Point: Nonterrorist Mass Shootings
Chapter Perspective 2.1: Mass Shootings in the United States from Columbine to Sandy Hook
Natural Hazards
Tropical Cyclonic Storms
Chapter Perspective 2.2: Reporting Hurricane Intensity: The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale
Case in Point: Superstorm Sandy’s Swath of Destruction
Earthquakes
Chapter Perspective 2.3: Reporting Earthquake Intensity: The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale
Tornadoes
Floods
Wildland Fires
Technological Scenarios
Grid Infrastructure Malfunctions
Hazardous Material Accidents
Non-Wildland Fires
Global Perspective: Disaster in Japan: Tsunami and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
Global Perspective: Disaster in Japan: Tsunami and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 3. The Legal Foundations of Homeland Security
Background: Legal Precedent and Homeland Security
International and Domestic Law: Policy Challenges
The Historical Context: State Sponsorship of International Terrorism
Legitimizing Legal Authority: Classifying State Sponsors and Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Chapter Perspective 3.1: Foreign Terrorist Organizations
International Law and Counterterrorist Cooperation by the World Community
Chapter Perspective 3.2: The Benghazi Attack
Chapter Perspective 3.3: The Black September Crisis: Case Study and Historical Context
Homeland Security: Statutory Authority
The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996
The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001
The Department of Homeland Security Act of 2002
The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005
The USA FREEDOM Act of 2015
In Perspective: Homeland Security, Counterterrorism, and the Law
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 4. Civil Liberties and Securing the Homeland
Security and Liberty: The Historical Context
The Early Republic and Civil War
Communism and the Red Scares
Wartime Internment Camps
Achieving Security
Practical Considerations: Civil Liberty and Government Responses
Chapter Perspective 4.1: National Security, Reporting Terrorism, and Regulating the Media
Case in Point: Data Mining by the National Security Agency
Chapter Perspective 4.2: Carnivore: The Dawn of Internet Surveillance
Civil Liberty and Countering Extremism Through Reform
Case in Point: Cultural Shifts, Inclusion, and Civil Liberty in the United States
Balancing Civil Liberties and Homeland Security
Terrorist Profiling
The Problem of Labeling the Enemy
Civil Liberties and Detainees
The Ker-Frisbie Rule and Extraordinary Renditions
Case in Point: The Torture Debate
Global Perspective: Wrongful Prosecution in the United Kingdom
Global Perspective: Wrongful Prosecution in the United Kingdom
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 5. Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the Federal Level
The Scope of the Homeland Security Bureaucracy
Conceptual Background: The Bureaucratic Context
The Federal Bureaucracy Prior to September 11, 2001
Case in Point: The Problem of Interagency Disconnect
Bureaucratic Transformation After September 11, 2001
The Department of Homeland Security
The Office of the Secretary
Department of Homeland Security Administrative Centers
The Homeland Security Missions of Other Federal Agencies
The Department of Agriculture
The Department of Defense
The Department of Energy
The Department of Health and Human Services
The Department of the Interior
The Department of the Treasury
The Environmental Protection Agency
The Intelligence Community
Background: Intelligence Collection and Jurisdiction
The U.S. Intelligence Community: Members and Mission
Case in Point: The Early Warning Role of Intelligence
Chapter Perspective 5.1: Sources of Actionable Intelligence
The U.S. Intelligence Community: Challenges
Case in Point: Intelligence Miscalculation and the Iraq Case
Case in Point: Successful International Intelligence Cooperation
The Role of the Military
The Homeland Defense Mission of the Department of Defense
Case in Point: The Posse Comitatus Act
Waging War in the Era of the New Terrorism
War in the Shadows
Overt Conflict: The Deployment of Military Assets
Global Perspective: Actionable Intelligence: Israel and the Hunt for “The Engineer”
Global Perspective: Actionable Intelligence: Israel and the Hunt for “The Engineer”
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 6. Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the State and Local Levels
State-Level Homeland Security Systems
State Government and Homeland Security: Principal Roles
Chapter Perspective 6.1: Governors and the Politics of Crisis Intervention
State Government and Emergency Management: Configuration of Services
National Collaboration: The National Emergency Management Association
The National Homeland Security Consortium
Regional Collaboration: Networking and Assistance Across Jurisdictions
Local Homeland Security Networking Initiatives
The National Association of Counties
The National League of Cities
The U.S. Conference of Mayors
Case in Point: The Challenge of Funding Initiatives
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Agencies
The Police Mission in Homeland Security Environments
The Internal Security Imperatives of Law Enforcement Agencies
The Operational Impact of Terrorism: Adaptations by Law Enforcement Agencies
Case in Point: Joint Terrorism Task Forces
Case in Point: Militarization of the Police
Global Perspective: Paramilitary Deployment of Police Units
Global Perspective: Paramilitary Deployment of Police Units by Western Democracies
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Part II. Threats and Vulnerabilities
Chapter 7. Sea Change: The New Terrorism and Homeland Security
Defining Terrorism: An Ongoing Debate
Case in Point: The Political Violence Matrix
Combatants, Noncombatants, and the Use of Force
Historical Context: The “Old Terrorism” Prior to September 11, 2001
The Pre-September 11 Terrorist Environment
Chapter Perspective 7.1: Cold War Terrorist-Networking Theory
September 11, 2001, and the New Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 7.2: The Ideology of Al Qaeda
Religion and Terrorism in the Modern Era
Chapter Perspective 7.3: Jihad: Struggling in the Way of God
The New Terrorism and Globalization
Plausible Scenarios: The New Terrorism and New Modes of Warfare
Asymmetrical Warfare
Case in Point: Asymmetrical Warfare in Paris and Brussels
The Paris Attacks
The Brussels Attacks
Chapter Perspective 7.4: The Appeal of Asymmetrical Warfare
Maximum Casualties and the New Terrorism
Netwar: A New Organizational Theory
Policy Options
Countering Extremism
Countering the New Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 7.5: The Utility of Monitoring Social Networking Media
Global Perspective: Digital, Video, and Audio Terrorism
Global Perspective: Tactical Horror: Digital, Video, and Audio Terrorism
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 8. The Threat at Home: Terrorism in the United States
Extremism in America
Chapter Perspective 8.1: Understanding Extremism
Left-Wing Extremism in the United States
Right-Wing Extremism in the United States
Chapter Perspective 8.2: Are Hate Crimes Acts of Terrorism?
Sources of International Terrorism in the United States
Case in Point: Conspiracy Theories on the American Right
Left-Wing Terrorism in the United States
Generational Rebellion: New Left Terrorism
Civil Strife: Ethnonationalist Terrorism on the Left
The Revolution Continues: Leftist Hard Cores
Case in Point: The United Freedom Front
Single-Issue Violence on the Left
Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States
The Past as Prologue: The Historical Legacy of the Ku Klux Klan
Racial Mysticism: Neo-Nazi Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 8.3: Race and the Bible: The Christian Identity Creation Myth
Patriot Threats
Chapter Perspective 8.4: The Oklahoma City Bombing
Case in Point: Moralist Terrorism
The New Terrorism in the United States
Jihad in America
September 11, 2001
Case in Point: The Threat from Homegrown Jihadists
Case in Point: The Orlando Mass Shooting-Jihadist Terrorism and Hate Crime
Lone-Wolf Terrorism in the United States
Racial and Anti-Government Lone Wolves
Jihadist Lone Wolves
Global Perspective: Lone-Wolf Terror in Norway
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 9. Porous Nodes: Specific Vulnerabilities
Cybersecurity
Understanding Threats to Cybersecurity
Malicious Use of Cyber Technology: Examples
Cyberattacks: Potential Targets
Cyberterror: Feasibility and Likelihood
Aviation Security
Symbolic Value: Airline Attacks and Maximum Propaganda Effect
Historical Context: The PFLP and the Dawn of Modern Aviation Terrorism
The Complexity of Aviation Security
Implementing Aviation Security Priorities
Case in Point: The Chemical Plot
Border Security
Undocumented Immigration and Homeland Security
Plausible Scenarios: Crime and Insecurity on the Southern Border
Case in Point: The Tri-Border Area of South America
Case in Point: The Mexican Drug War
Port Security
Understanding the Terrorist Threat to Ports and Maritime Targets
Chapter Perspective 9.1: The Contagion Effect
Case in Point: Maritime Cargo Containers
Port Security Initiatives and Priorities
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Part III. Preparedness, Response, Recovery
Chapter 10. Always Vigilant: Hardening the Target
Information Security: Cyberwar and Hardening Cyberspace
Cyberwar as an Antiterrorist Option
Modern Surveillance Technologies
Chapter Perspective 10.1: The Utility of Monitoring Social Networking Media
Case in Point: The Echelon Satellite Surveillance Network
Hardening Critical Infrastructure
Securing Critical Infrastructure: Background and Context
Federal Guidance: The DHS Building and Infrastructure Protection Series
Case in Point: BIPS 06/FEMA 426
Options for Critical Infrastructure Security and Target Hardening
Border Control: Securing National Entry Points
Security Considerations and Patrolling the Border
Historical Context: The Evolution of the U.S. Border Patrol
Hardening the Border: Three Agencies
Transportation Security
A Complex Arrangement: Components of the Transportation System
The Transportation Security Administration
Global Perspective: International Law Enforcement Consortia
Global Perspective: The Role of the “International Police”
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 11. Critical Resources: Preparedness and Planning
The Role of Proper Planning
Foundational Concept: The National Incident Management System
Local Planning: The Private Sector
Local Planning: Emerging Roles at the Local Government Level
Case in Point: Health and Medical Preparedness Strategies
Prevention and Mitigation Planning
Components of the Prevention and Mitigation Process
Federal Mitigation Assistance
Chemical and Biological Hazard Planning
A Complex Dilemma: Mitigating Chemical and Biological Incidents
Chapter Perspective 11.1: Case Study: The Tokyo Subway Nerve Gas Attack and Aftermath
Case in Point: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines
Radiological and Nuclear Hazard Planning
Coordinating Nuclear Security: The Role of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Case in Point: Weaponization of Radiological Agents Revisited
Global Perspective: The European Approach to Homeland Security
Global Perspective: The European Approach to Homeland Security Preparedness
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Chapter 12. Critical Outcomes: Response and Recovery
National Response and Recovery: Fostering Administrative Coordination
The Problem of Reactive Planning
Federal National Planning Frameworks and the National Preparedness Goal
The Incident Command System
Case in Point: Presidential Declarations
Federal Response and Recovery Coordination
Background: The Progression of Federal Response Planning
Case in Point: Implementing the National Response Framework
State and Local Response and Recovery Planning
Response and Recovery Planning by State Authorities
Response and Recovery Planning by Local Authorities
Final Consideration: Despite Best Efforts, Is Terrorism Effective?
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Recommended Websites
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Part IV. Homeland Security: An Evolving Concept
Chapter 13. The Future of Homeland Security
Near-Term Projections
Adaptive Measures: Theoretical and Practical Considerations
Controlling Terrorism: Understanding Fundamental Challenges
Chapter Perspective 13.1:The Continued Utility of Force
Case in Point: International Collaboration on Law Enforcement and Intelligence
Threat Environments in the Twenty-First Century
Defending the Homeland: Ongoing Patterns of Political Violence
The Threat From Ideological Terrorism
The Threat From International Terrorism
Chapter Perspective 13.2: The Changing Environment of International Terrorism
Chapter Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
On Your Own
Web Exercise
Recommended Readings
Homeland Security Timeline
Appendix A. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2011. “Terrorism.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 9.
Appendix B. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2015. National Preparedness Goal. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security.
Glossary
Notes
Index
About the Author
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