Test bank for THiNK 3rd Edition by Judith A. Boss
Test bank for THiNK 3rd Edition by Judith A. Boss
THiNK offers instructors core content and pedagogy in a succinct magazine format that teaches them the importance of overcoming feelings and opinions to commit to positions based on reason and logic. Boss’s 3rd edition is powered by Connect Critical Thinking, a state of the art digital learning environment that helps you connect your students to their coursework. Whether accessing online homework and quizzes, or assigning SmartBook and LearnSmart, the first and only adaptive learning experience, Connect provides a complete digital solution for your classroom. With extensive opportunity for application and practice, and groundbreaking digital content, THiNK directs students to make connections between skill development and apply it to their college studies, careers, and personal lives.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Critical Thinking: Why It’s ImportantWhat is Critical Thinking?Critical Thinking in Everyday LifeCognitive Development in College StudentsCharacteristics of a Good Critical ThinkerAnalytical SkillsEffective CommunicationResearch and Inquiry SkillsFlexibility and Tolerance for AmbiguityOpen-minded SkepticismCreative Problem SolvingAttention, Mindfulness, and CuriosityCollaborative LearningCritical Thinking and Self-DevelopmentLiving the Self-Examined LifeDeveloping a Rational Life PlanFacing ChallengesThe Importance of Self-EsteemCritical Thinking in a DemocracyBarriers to Critical ThinkingThe Three-Tier Model of ThinkingResistanceTypes of ResistanceNarrow-mindednessRationalization and DoublethinkCognitive and Social DissonanceStress as a BarrierCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Affirmative Action in College AdmissionsChapter 2: Reason and EmotionWhat is Reason?Traditional Views of ReasonGender, Age, and ReasonDreams and Problem SolvingThe Role of Emotion in Critical ThinkingCultural Attitudes Toward EmotionEmotional Intelligence and the Positive Effects of EmotionNegative Effects of EmotionIntegrating Emotion and ReasonArtificial Intelligence, Reason, and EmotionThe Field of Artificial IntelligenceCan Computers Think?Can Computers Feel Emotion?Faith and ReasonFideism: Faith Transcends ReasonRationalism: Religious Beliefs and ReasonCritical Rationalism: Faith and Reason are CompatibleReligion, Spirituality and Real-Life DecisionsCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on on Reason and Proofs for the Existence of GodChapter 3: Language and Communication What is Language?Functions of LanguageNonverbal LanguageDefinitionsDenotative and Connotative MeaningsStipulative DefinitionsLexical DefinitionsPrecising DefinitionsPersuasive DefinitionsEvaluating DefinitionsFive CriteriaVerbal Disputes Based on Ambiguous DefinitionsCommunication StylesIndividual Styles of CommunicationSex and Racial Differences in Communication StyleCultural Differences in Communication StylesThe Use of Language to ManipulateEmotive LanguageRhetorical DevicesDeception and LyingCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Free Speech Zones on College CampusesChapter 4: Knowledge, Evidence and Errors in ThinkingHuman Knowledge and Its LimitationsRationalism and EmpiricismThe Structure of the MindEvaluating EvidenceDirect Experience and False MemoriesThe Unreliability of Hearsay and Anecdotal EvidenceExperts and CredibilityEvaluating Evidence for a ClaimResearch ResourcesCognitive and Perceptual Errors in ThinkingPerceptual ErrorsMisperception of Random DataMemorable Events ErrorProbability ErrorSelf-Serving BiasesSelf-Fulfilling PropheciesSocial Errors and Biases”One of Us/One of Them” ErrorSocietal ExpectationsGroup Pressure and ConformityDiffusion of ResponsibilityCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Evaluating Existence for the Existence of Unidentified Flying ObjectsChapter 5: Informal FallaciesWhat is a Fallacy?Fallacies of AmbiguityEquivocationAmphibolyFallacy of AccentFallacy of DivisionFallacy of CompositionFallacies of RelevancePersonal Attack (Ad Hominem) FallacyAppeal to Force (Scare Tactics)Appeal to PityPopular AppealAppeal to IgnoranceHasty GeneralizationStraw ManRed HerringFallacies Involving Unwarranted AssumptionsBegging the QuestionInappropriate Appeal to AuthorityLoaded QuestionFalse DilemmaQuestionable CauseSlippery SlopeNaturalistic FallacyStrategies for Avoiding FallaciesCritical Thinking Issues: Perspectives on Gun ControlChapter 6: Recognizing, Analyzing, and Constructing ArgumentsWhat is an Issue?Identifying an IssueAsking the Right QuestionsRecognizing an ArgumentDistinguishing Between Argumentation and RhetoricTypes of ArgumentsPropositionsPremises and ConclusionsNonarguments: Explanations and Conditional StatementsBreaking Down and Diagramming ArgumentsBreaking Down an Argument into PropositionsIdentifying the Premise(s) and Conclusion in Complex ArgumentsDiagramming an ArgumentEvaluating ArgumentsClarity: Is the Argument Clear and Unambiguous?Credibility: Are The Premises Supported by Evidence?Relevance: Are The Premises Relevant to the Conclusion?Completeness: Are There Any Unstated Premises and Conclusions?Soundness: Are the Premises True and Do They Support the Conclusion?Constructing an ArgumentSteps for Constructing an ArgumentUsing Arguments in Making Real-Life DecisionsCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Same Sex MarriageChapter 7: Inductive ArgumentsWhat is an Inductive Argument?The Use of Inductive Reasoning in Everyday LifeGeneralizationUsing Polls, Surveys, and Sampling to Make GeneralizationsApplying Generalizations to Particular CasesEvaluating Inductive Arguments Using GeneralizationAnalogiesUses of AnalogiesArguments Based on AnalogiesAnalogies as Tools for Refuting ArgumentsEvaluating Inductive Arguments Based on AnalogiesCausal ArgumentsCausal RelationshipsCorrelationsEstablishing Causal RelationshipsCausal Arguments in Public Policy and Everyday Decision MakingEvaluating Causal ArgumentsCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Legalizing MarijuanaChapter 8: Deductive ArgumentsWhat is a Deductive Argument?Deductive Reasoning and SyllogismsValid and Invalid ArgumentsSound and Unsound ArgumentsTypes of Deductive ArgumentsArguments by EliminationArguments Based on MathematicsArguments from DefinitionHypothetical SyllogismsModus PonensModus TollensChain ArgumentsEvaluating Hypothetical Syllogisms for ValidityCategorical SyllogismsStandard-Form Categorical SyllogismsQuantity and QualityDiagramming Propositions with Venn DiagramsUsing Venn Diagrams to Evaluate Categorical SyllogismsTranslating Ordinary Arguments into Standard FormRewriting Everyday Propositions in Standard-FormIdentifying the Three Terms in the ArgumentPutting the Argument in Standard FormCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Death PenaltyChapter 9: Critical Thinking in Ethics and Moral Decision-MakingWhat is Moral Reasoning?Moral Values and HappinessConscience and Moral SentimentThe Development of Moral ReasoningLawrence Kohlberg’s Stage Theory of Moral DevelopmentCarol Gilligan on Moral Reasoning WomenThe Development of Moral Reasoning in College StudentsMoral Theories: Morality is RelativeEthical SubjectivismCultural RelativismMoral Theories: Morality is UniversalUtilitarianism (Consequence-Based Ethics)Deontology (Duty-Based Ethics)Rights-Based ethicsVirtue EthicsMoral ArgumentsRecognizing Moral ArgumentsConstructing Moral ArgumentsEvaluating Moral ArgumentsResolving Moral DilemmasCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on AbortionChapter 10: Marketing and AdvertisingMarketing in a Consumer CultureMarketing ResearchAvoiding Confirmation Bias and Other Errors in ThinkingMarketing StrategiesThe SWOT ModelConsumer Awareness of Marketing StrategiesAdvertising and the MediaThe Role of Advertising in the MediaProduct PlacementTelevision Advertising and ChildrenEvaluating AdvertisementsCommon Fallacies in AdvertisementsRhetorical Devices and Misleading LanguageFaulty and Weak ArgumentsA Critique of AdvertisingCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Advertising and ChildrenChapter 11: Mass MediaMass Media in the United StatesThe Rise of Mass MediaThe Media TodayThe News MediaSensationalism and the News as EntertainmentDepth of News AnalysisBias in the NewsScience ReportingMisrepresentation of Scientific FindingsGovernment Influence and BiasEvaluating Scientific ReportsThe InternetImpact of the Internet on Daily LifeSocial NetworkingThe Internet as “The Great Equalizer”Misuse of the Internet: Pornography and PlagiarismMedia Literacy: A Critical Thinking ApproachExperiencing the MediaInterpreting Media MessagesCritical Thinking Issue: Internet Plagiarism Among College StudentsChapter 12: ScienceWhat is Science?The Scientific RevolutionAssumptions Underlying ScienceLimitations of ScienceScience and ReligionThe Scientific Method1. Identify the Problem2. Develop an Initial Hypothesis3. Gather Additional Information and Refine the Hypothesis4. Test the Hypothesis5. Evaluate the Hypothesis Based on Testing or Experimental ResultsEvaluating Scientific HypothesesRelevance to the Problem Under StudyConsistency with Well-Established TheoriesSimplicityTestability and FalsifiabilityPredictive PowerDistinguishing Between Scientific and Pseudoscientific HypothesesResearch Methodology and Scientific ExperimentsResearch Methodology and DesignField ExperimentsControlled ExperimentsSingle Group (Pretest-Posttest) ExperimentsEvaluating an Experimental DesignInterpreting Experimental ResultsEthical Concerns in Scientific ExperimentationThomas Kuhn and Scientific ParadigmsNormal Science and ParadigmsScientific Revolutions and Paradigm ShiftsCritical Thinking Issue: Evolution versus Intelligent DesignChapter 13: Law and PoliticsThe Social Contract Theory of GovernmentThe State of NatureSocial Contract TheoryInternational LawThe Development of Democracy in the United StatesRepresentative Democracy: A Safeguard against the “Tyranny of the Majority”Liberal Democracy: Protection of Individual RightsPolitical Campaigns and ElectionsVoting: A Right or a Duty?The Executive Branch of GovernmentThe Role of the Executive BranchExecutive Orders and National SecurityChecks on Executive PowerThe Legislative Branch of GovernmentThe Role of the Legislative BranchCitizens and LegislationUnjust Laws and Civil DisobedienceThe Judicial Branch of GovernmentThe Role of the Judicial BranchRules of EvidenceLegal Reasoning and the Doctrine of Legal PrecedentJury DutyCritical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Use of Drones in Warfare
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Test bank for THiNK 3rd Edition by Judith A. Boss