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Test bank for Principles of Human Anatomy 13th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora

Test bank for Principles of Human Anatomy 13th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora

Immerse yourself in the spectacular visuals and dynamic content of Principles of Human Anatomy, 14th Edition. Designed for the 1-term Human Anatomy course, this 14th edition raises the standard for excellence in this discipline with its enhanced illustration program, refined narrative, and dynamic resources. Principles of Human Anatomy is a rich digital experience, giving students the ability to learn and explore human anatomy both inside and outside of the classroom.

Table of Contents

1 An Introduction to the Human Body 11.1 Anatomy Defined 2

1.2 Levels of Body Organization and Body Systems 3

1.3 Life Processes 8

1.4 Basic Anatomical Terminology 9

1.5 Body Cavities 14

1.6 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants 18

1.7 The Human Body and Disease 20

1.8 Aging 20

1.9 Medical Imaging 21

1.10 Measuring the Human Body 24

Chapter Review 25 / Critical Thinking Questions 26 / Answers to Figure Questions 26

2 Cells 27

2.1 A Generalized Cell 28

2.2 The Plasma Membrane 29

2.3 Cytoplasm 35

2.4 Nucleus 44

2.5 Cell Division 47

2.6 Cellular Diversity 54

2.7 Aging and Cells 56

Key Medical Terms Associated with Cells 57 / Chapter Review 58 / Critical Thinking Questions 60 / Answers to Figure Questions 60

Tissues 61

3.1 Types of Tissues 62

3.2 Cell Junctions 63

3.3 Comparison Between Epithelial and Connective Tissues 64

3.4 Epithelial Tissue 65

3.5 Connective Tissue 77

3.6 Membranes 90

3.7 Muscular Tissue 92

3.8 Nervous Tissue 92

3.9 Aging and Tissues 94

Key Medical Terms Associated with Tissues 95 / Chapter Review 95 / Critical Thinking Questions 97 / Answers to Figure Questions 97

Development 98

4.1 Principles of Development 99

4.2 Embryonic Period 100

4.3 Fetal Period 117

4.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy 120

4.5 Labor 120

Key Medical Terms Associated with Development 122 / Chapter Review 123 / Critical Thinking Questions 124 / Answers to Figure Questions 124

The Integumentary System 125

5.1 Structure of the Skin 126

5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 134

5.3 Types of Skin 143

5.4 Functions of the Skin 143

5.5 Development of the Integumentary System 146

5.6 Aging and the Integumentary System 146

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Integumentary System 148 / Chapter Review 149 / Critical Thinking Questions 150 / Answers to Figure Questions 151

Bone Tissue 152

6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 153

6.2 Types of Bones 153

6.3 Anatomy of a Bone 154

6.4 Bone Surface Markings 156

6.5 Histology of Bone Tissue 156

6.6 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone 162

6.7 Bone Formation 163

6.8 Fractures 170

6.9 Exercise and Bone Tissue 173

6.10 Aging and Bone Tissue 173

6.11 Factors Affecting Bone Growth 173

Key Medical Terms Associated with Bone Tissue 175 / Chapter Review 175 / Critical Thinking Questions 176 / Answers to Figure Questions 177

The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton 178

7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System 179

7.2 Skull or Cranium 181

7.3 Hyoid Bone 209

7.4 Vertebral Column 209

7.5 Thorax 223

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Axial Skeleton 227 / Chapter Review 228 / Critical Thinking Questions 229 / Answers to Figure Questions 229

The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton 230

8.1 Skeleton of the Upper Limb 231

8.2 Skeleton of the Lower Limb 244

8.3 Greater and Lesser Pelves 250

8.4 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves 252

8.5 Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles 252

8.6 Development of the Skeletal System 262

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Appendicular Skeleton 265 / Chapter Review 265 / Critical Thinking Questions 266 / Answers to Figure Questions 266

Joints 267

9.1 Joint Classifications 268

9.2 Fibrous Joints 268

9.3 Cartilaginous Joints 270

9.4 Synovial Joints 271

9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 274

9.6 Types of Synovial Joints 280

9.7 Factors Affecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints 283

9.8 Selected Joints of the Body 284

9.9 Aging and Joints 302

Key Medical Terms Associated with Joints 303 / Chapter Review 304 / Critical Thinking Questions 305 / Answers to Figure Questions 305

10 Muscular Tissue 306

10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 307

10.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Structure 308

10.3 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Function 317

10.4 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 325

10.5 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 327

10.6 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 328

10.7 Smooth Muscle Tissue 330

10.8 Development of Muscles 332

10.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue 334

Key Medical Terms Associated with Muscular Tissue 334 / Chapter Review 334 / Critical Thinking Questions 336 / Answers to Figure Questions 336

11 The Muscular System 337

11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements 338

11.2 How Skeletal Muscles Are Named 343

11.3 Principal Skeletal Muscles 343

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Muscular System 439 / Chapter Review 440 / Critical Thinking Questions 441 / Answers to Figure Questions 441

12 The Cardiovascular System: Blood 443

12.1 Functions of Blood 444

12.2 Physical Characteristics of Blood 444

12.3 Components of Blood 445

12.4 Formation of Blood Cells 448

12.5 Red Blood Cells 450

12.6 White Blood Cells 454

12.7 Platelets 457

12.8 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow and Cord Blood 460

Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood 460 / Chapter Review 461 / Critical Thinking Questions 462 / Answers to Figure Questions 462

13 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart 463

13.1 Location and Surface Projection of the Heart 464

13.2 Structure and Function of the Heart 466

13.3 Circulation of Blood 477

13.4 Cardiac Conduction System and Innervation 480

13.5 Cardiac Cycle (Heartbeat) 483

13.6 Heart Sounds 484

13.7 Exercise and the Heart 485

13.8 Development of the Heart 489

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Heart 491 / Chapter Review 492 / Critical Thinking Questions 493 / Answers to Figure Questions 493

14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels 494

14.1 Anatomy of Blood Vessels 495

14.2 Circulatory Routes—Systemic Circulation 504

14.3 Circulatory Routes—Hepatic Portal Circulation 548

14.4 Circulatory Routes—Pulmonary Circulation 549

14.5 Circulatory Routes—Fetal Circulation 550

14.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood 554

14.7 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 554

Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood vessels 556 / Chapter Review 557 / Critical Thinking Questions 558 / Answers to Figure Questions 558

15 The Lymphoid (Lymphatic) System and Immunity 559

15.1 The Concept of Immunity 560

15.2 Lymphoid (Lymphatic) System Structure and Functions 560

15.3 Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Circulation 563

15.4 Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 566

15.5 Principal Groups of Lymph Nodes 573

15.6 Development of Lymphoid Tissues 584

15.7 Aging and the Lymphoid System 584

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Lymphoid System and Immunity 586 / Chapter Review 587 / Critical Thinking Questions 588 / Answers to Figure Questions 588

16 Nervous Tissue 589

16.1 Overview of the Nervous System 590

16.2 Histology and Functions of Neurons 592

16.3 Histology and Function of Neuroglia 598

16.4 Neural Circuits 603

16.5 Regeneration and Neurogenesis 604

Key Medical Terms Associated with Nervous Tissue 605 / Chapter Review 605 / Critical Thinking Questions 606 / Answers to Figure Questions 607

17 The Spinal Cord and the Spinal Nerves 608

17.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy 609

17.2 Spinal Nerves 615

17.3 Spinal Cord Functions 633

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Spinal Cord and the Spinal Nerves 636 / Chapter Review 637 / Critical Thinking Questions 637 / Answers to Figure Questions 638

18 The Brain and the Cranial Nerves 639

18.1 Development and General Structure of the Brain 640

18.2 Protection and Blood Supply 641

18.3 The Brainstem and Reticular Formation 649

18.4 The Cerebellum 655

18.5 The Diencephalon 657

18.6 The Cerebrum 661

18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 667

18.8 Aging and the Nervous System 673

18.9 Cranial Nerves 673

Brain and the Cranial Nerves 690 / Chapter Review 691 / Critical Thinking Questions 693 / Answers to Figure Questions 693

19 The Autonomic Division of the Peripheral Nervous System 694

19.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Division of the Peripheral Nervous Systems 695

19.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathway 697

19.3 Structure of the Sympathetic Part 701

19.4 Structure of the Parasympathetic Part 706

19.5 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors 709

19.6 Functions of the ANS 711

19.7 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions 714

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Autonomic Nervous Division 715 / Chapter Review 716 / Critical Thinking Questions 717 / Answers to Figure Questions 717

20 Somatic Senses and Motor Control 718

20.1 Overview of Sensations 719

20.2 Somatic Sensations 721

20.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways 727

20.4 Somatic Motor Pathways 731

20.5 Integration of Sensory Input and Motor Output 737

Key Medical Terms Associated with Somatic Senses and Motor Control 737 / Chapter Review 738 / Critical Thinking Questions 739 / Answers to Figure Questions 739

21 Special Senses 740

21.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 741

21.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 743

21.3 Vision 746

21.4 Hearing and Equilibrium 757

21.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears 773

21.6 Aging and the Special Senses 775

Key Medical Terms Associated with Special Senses 776 / Chapter Review 776 / Critical Thinking Questions 777 / Answers to Figure Questions 778

22 The Endocrine System 779

22.1 Endocrine Glands Defined 780

22.2 Hormones 780

22.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 782

22.4 Pineal Gland and Thymus 788

22.5 Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands 788

22.6 Suprarenal (Adrenal) Glands 792

22.7 Pancreas 795

22.8 Ovaries and Testes 798

22.9 Other Endocrine Tissues 799

22.10 Development of the Endocrine System 800

22.11 Aging and the Endocrine System 801

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Endocrine System 802 / Chapter Review 802 / Critical Thinking Questions 804 / Answers to Figure Questions 804

23 The Respiratory System 805

23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy 806

23.2 Upper Respiratory System Anatomy 806

23.3 Lower Respiratory System Anatomy 811

23.4 Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing) 831

23.5 Regulation of Breathing 834

23.6 Exercise and the Respiratory System 837

23.7 Development of the Respiratory System 838

23.8 Aging and the Respiratory System 839

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Respiratory System 840 / Chapter Review 840 / Critical Thinking Questions 841 / Answers to Figure Questions 841

24 The Digestive System 843

24.1 Overview of the Digestive System 844

24.2 Layers of the Digestive Canal 845

24.3 Peritoneum 847

24.4 Mouth 850

24.5 Pharynx 857

24.6 Esophagus 857

24.7 Stomach 860

24.8 Pancreas 865

24.9 Liver and Gallbladder 867

24.10 Small Intestine 873

24.11 Large Intestine 883

24.12 Development of the Digestive System 888

24.13 Aging and the Digestive System 889

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Digestive System 890 / Chapter Review 891 / Critical Thinking Questions 892 / Answers to Figure Questions 893

25 The Urinary System 894

25.1 Overview of the Urinary System 895

25.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys 896

25.3 The Nephron 901

25.4 Functions of Nephrons 907

25.5 Urine Transportation, Storage, and Elimination 911

25.6 Development of the Urinary System 918

25.7 Aging and the Urinary System 919

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Urinary System 919 / Chapter Review 920 / Critical Thinking Questions 921 / Answers to Figure Questions 921

26 The Genital (Reproductive) Systems 922

26.1 Male Genital (Reproductive) System 923

26.2 Female Genital (Reproductive) System 937

26.3 Female Reproductive Cycle 957

26.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 960

26.5 Development of the Genital Systems 965

26.6 Aging and the Genital Systems 965

Key Medical Terms Associated with the Genital Systems 968 / Chapter Review 969 / Critical Thinking Questions 970 / Answers to Figure Questions 971

27 Surface Anatomy 972

27.1 Overview of Surface Anatomy 973

Chapter Review 997 / Critical Thinking Questions 997 / Answers to Figure Questions 998

Appendix A Measurements A-1

Appendix B Answers B-3

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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Test bank for Principles of Human Anatomy 13th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora