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Test Bank for Organizational Behavior Arab World Edition Stephen Robbins

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Test Bank for Organizational Behavior Arab World Edition Stephen Robbins
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Test Bank for Organizational Behavior Arab World Edition Stephen Robbins

Test Bank for Organizational Behavior Arab World Edition Stephen Robbins

Organizational Behavior (Arab World Edition)

Table of Contents

Contents
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
1 Introduction
1 What Is Organizational Behavior?
The Importance of Interpersonal Skills
What Managers Do
Management Functions
Management Roles
Management Skills
Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities
A Review of the Manager’s Job
This Is Organizational Behavior
Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study
Disciplines That Contribute to OB
Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology
Anthropology
There Are Few Absolutes in OB
Challenges and Opportunities for OB
The Significance of Globalization
Managing Workforce Diversity
Improving Quality and Productivity
Improving Customer Service
Improving People Skills
Stimulating Innovation and Change
Helping Employees Balance Work–Life Conflicts
Creating a Positive Work Environment
Improving Ethical Behavior
Developing an OB Model
An Overview
The Dependent Variables
The Independent Variables
Toward a Contingency OB Model
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior?
OB in the News Other Disciplines Make Use of OB Concepts
International OB Organizational Citizenship at Byblos Bank
Point/Counterpoint In Search of the Quick Fix
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise A Day in the Life of Hussam
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Equal Opportunity at Crepaway
Research Exercise
2 The Individual
2 Foundations of Individual Behavior: Personality and Values
Ability
Intellectual Abilities
Physical Abilities
Biographical Characteristics
Age
Gender
Race
Tenure
Learning
A Definition of Learning
Theories of Learning
Shaping: A Managerial Tool
Personality
What Is Personality?
Measuring Personality
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The Big Five Personality Model
Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB
Values
The Importance of Values
The Relationship Between an Individual’s Personality and the Workplace
Person–Job Fit
Person–Organization Fit
Linking Cultures and Behavior
Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures
The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures
Global Implications
Intellectual Abilities
Biographical Characteristics
Learning
Personality
Values
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Attitude Toward Achievement?
International OB Cultural Intelligence Is Necessary
OB in the News Whatever Men Can Do, Women Can Also Do
Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Disciplining Others?
Point/Counterpoint All Human Behavior is Learned
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Qatar: A Country with a Vision
Research Exercise
3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Attitudes
What Are the Main Components of Attitudes?
Is There a Relationship Between Behavior and Attitudes?
What Are the Major Job Attitudes?
Job Satisfaction
Measuring Job Satisfaction
How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?
What Causes Job Satisfaction?
The Impact of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees on the Workplace
Global Implications
Is Job Satisfaction Specific to Cultures?
Are Employees in Western Cultures More Satisfied with Their Jobs Than Those in the East?
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library How Satisfied Am I With My Job?
International OB Organizational Commitment at Aramex
Self-Assessment Library Am I Engaged?
OB in the News Job Satisfaction: Does It Differ Across Cultures?
Point/Counterpoint Managers Can Create Satisfied Employees
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Job Satisfaction in the UAE
Research Exercise
4 Perception and Individual Decision Making
What Is Perception?
Factors That Influence Perception
Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others
Attribution Theory
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others
Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations
The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making
Decision Making in Organizations
The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition
Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making
Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints
Individual Differences
Organizational Constraints
What About Ethics in Decision Making?
Three Ethical Decision Criteria
Improving Creativity in Decision Making
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Attitude Toward Older People?
International OB How Culture Influences Decision Making
Self-Assessment Library Am I a Deliberate Decision Maker?
OB in the News inJAz Bahrain’s Business Ethics Program
Self-Assessment Library How Creative Am I?
Point/Counterpoint When In Doubt, Do!
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Decision Making Processes at Steel Inc
Research Exercise
5 Motivation: Concepts and Applications
Defining Motivation
Early Theories of Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Theory X and Theory Y
Two-Factor Theory
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Goal-Setting Theory
Self-Efficacy Theory
Reinforcement Theory
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory
Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model
The Job Characteristics Model
How Can Jobs Be Redesigned?
Alternative Work Arrangements
Employee Involvement
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs
Linking Employee Involvement Programs and Motivation Theories
Using Rewards to Motivate Employees
What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure
How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through Variable-Pay Programs
Flexible Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package
Intrinsic Rewards: Employee Recognition Programs
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library How Confident Am I in My Abilities to Succeed?
International OB Motivation and Culture: What’s the Relationship?
Self-Assessment Library What Are My Course Performance Goals?
OB in the News What Motivates Employees?
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Job’s Motivating Potential?
Point/Counterpoint Praise Motivates
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Reducing Travel Costs at Applebee’s
Research Exercise
6 Emotions and Moods
What Are Emotions and Moods?
The Basic Emotions
The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect
The Function of Emotions
Sources of Emotions and Moods
Emotional Labor
Affective Events Theory
Emotional Intelligence
The Case for EI
The Case Against EI
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods
Selection
Decision Making
Creativity
Motivation
Leadership
Negotiation
Customer Service
Job Attitudes
Deviant Workplace Behaviors
How Managers Can Influence Moods
Global Implications
Does the Degree to Which People Experience Emotions Vary Across Cultures?
Do Peoples’ Interpretations of Emotions Vary Across Cultures?
Do the Norms for the Expression of Emotions Differ Across Cultures?
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library How Are You Feeling Right Now?
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Affect Intensity?
International OB Emotional Recognition: Universal or Culture Specific?
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Emotional Intelligence Score?
OB in the News Crying at Work Gains Acceptance
Point/Counterpoint The Costs and Benefits of Organizational Display Rules
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Happiness: Just an Emotion!
Research Exercise
3 The Group
7 Foundations of Group Behavior
Defining and Classifying Groups
Stages of Group Development
The Five-Stage Model
An Alternative Model for Temporary Groups with Deadlines
Group Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, and Cohesiveness
Group Property 1: Roles
Group Properties 2 and 3: Norms and Status
Group Property 4: Size
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness
Group Decision Making
Groups versus the Individual
Groupthink and Groupshift
Group Decision Making Techniques
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Attitude Toward Working in Groups?
Self-Assessment Library Do I Trust Others?
International OB Group Cohesiveness Across Cultures
OB in the News Groupthink for an Enron Jury?
Point/Counterpoint Are Groups the Best Design?
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis If Two Heads Are Better than One, Are Four Even Better?
Research Exercise
8 Understanding Work Teams
Why Have Teams Become So Popular?
Differences between Groups and Teams
Types of Teams
Problem-Solving Teams
Self-Managed Work Teams
Cross-Functional Teams
Virtual Teams
Creating Effective Teams
Context: What Factors Determine whether Teams Are Successful
Team Composition
Work Design
Team Processes
Turning Individuals into Team Players
Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Building and Leading a Team?
International OB Global Virtual Teams
OB in the News Surgical Teams Lack Teamwork
Self-Assessment Library What Is My Team Efficacy?
Point/Counterpoint Sports Teams Are Good Models for Workplace Teams
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Team Effectiveness in Egypt
Research Exercise
9 Communication
Functions of Communication
The Communication Process
Direction of Communication
Downward Communication
Upward Communication
Lateral Communication
Interpersonal Communication
Oral Communication
Written Communication
Nonverbal Communication
Organizational Communication
Formal Small-Group Networks
The Grapevine
Electronic Communications
Knowledge Management
Choice of Communication Channel
Barriers to Effective Communication
Filtering
Selective Perception
Information Overload
Emotions
Language
Communication Apprehension
Gender Differences
‘Politically Correct’ Communication
Global Implications
Cultural Barriers
Cultural Context
A Cultural Guide
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Face-to-Face Communication Style?
International OB Cultural Differences in Oral Communication
OB in the News Communication in the Arab World
International OB Lost in Translation?
Self-Assessment Library How Good Are My Listening Skills?
Point/Counterpoint Keep It a Secret
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis The Limitations of Electronic Communication
Research Exercise
10 Leadership
What Is Leadership?
Trait Theories
Behavioral Theories
Ohio State Studies
University of Michigan Studies
Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories
Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory
Fiedler Model
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Variables and Predictions
Summary of Contingency Theories
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Decision Theory: Vroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model
Inspirational Approaches to Leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Authentic Leadership: Ethics and Trust Are the Foundation of Leadership
What Is Authentic Leadership?
Ethics in Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility
What Is Trust?
Trust and Leadership
Three Types of Trust
Basic Principles of Trust
Contemporary Leadership Roles
Mentoring
Self-Leadership
Online Leadership
Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Leadership as an Attribution
Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership
Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
Selecting Leaders
Training Leaders
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Leadership Style?
OB in the News Riding the Waves Requires Leadership Skill!
Self-Assessment Library What Is My LPC Score?
Self-Assessment Library How Charismatic Am I?
Self-Assessment Library Am I an Ethical Leader?
International OB Cultural Variation in Charismatic Attributions
Point/Counterpoint Leaders Are Born, Not Made
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Cultural Variation in Charismatic Attributions
Research Exercise
11 Power and Politics
A Definition of Power
Contrasting Leadership and Power
Bases of Power
Formal Power
Personal Power
Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective?
Dependency: The Key to Power
What Creates Dependency?
Power Tactics
Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace
Politics: Power in Action
Definition of Organizational Politics
The Reality of Politics
Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior
Factors Contributing to Political Behavior
How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics?
Impression Management
The Ethics of Behaving Politically
Global Implications
Politics Perceptions
Preference for Power Tactics
Effectiveness of Power Tactics
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library Is My Workplace Political?
International OB Influence Tactics in China
Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Playing Politics?
OB in the News Excuses Are Everywhere
Point/Counterpoint Managing Impressions Is Unethical
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis The Politics of Backstabbing
Research Exercise
12 Conflict and Negotiation
A Definition of Conflict
Transitions in Conflict Thought
The Traditional View of Conflict
The Human Relations View of Conflict
The Interactionist View of Conflict
The Conflict Process
Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization
Stage III: Intentions
Stage IV: Behavior
Stage V: Outcomes
Negotiation
Bargaining Strategies
The Negotiation Process
Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness
Third-Party Negotiations
Global Implications
Conflict and Culture
Cultural Differences in Negotiations
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Preferred Conflict-Handling Style?
Self-Assessment Library What’s My Negotiating Style?
International OB Negotiating Across Cultures
OB in the News ‘Marriage Counseling’ for the Top Bosses
Point/Counterpoint Conflict Benefits Organizations
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Etisalat-Zain Deal Blocked
Research Exercise
4 The Organization System
13 Foundations of Organizational Structure
What Is Organizational Structure?
Work Specialization
Departmentalization
Chain of Command
Span of Control
Centralization and Decentralization
Formalization
Common Organizational Designs
The Simple Structure
The Bureaucracy
The Matrix Structure
New Design Options
The Virtual Organization
The Boundaryless Organization
Why Do Structures Differ?
Strategy
Organization Size
Technology
Environment
Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library Do I Like Bureaucracy?
Self-Assessment Library How Willing Am I to Delegate?
OB in the News Siemens Simple Structure—Not
International OB Structural Considerations in Multinationals
Point/Counterpoint Downsizing Improves Organizational Performance
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Organizational Structure at Food & Co
Research Exercise
14 Organizational Culture
Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture
What Is Organizational Culture?
A Definition of Organizational Culture
Culture Is a Descriptive Term
Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures?
Strong versus Weak Cultures
Culture versus Formalization
What Do Cultures Do?
Culture’s Functions
Culture as a Liability
Creating and Sustaining Culture
How a Culture Begins
Keeping a Culture Alive
Summary: How Cultures Form
How Employees Learn Culture
Stories
Rituals
Material Symbols
Language
Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture
Creating a Positive Organizational Culture
Spirituality and Organizational Culture
What Is Spirituality?
Why Spirituality Now?
Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization
Criticisms of Spirituality
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What’s the Right Organizational Culture for Me?
International OB Managing Across Organizational Boundaries
OB in the News Change Jobs, and You May Be in for a Culture Shock
Self-Assessment Library How Spiritual Am I?
Point/Counterpoint Organizational Cultures Can’t Be Changed
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Ghosn Turns Nissan Around
Research Exercise
15 Human Resource Policies and Practices in the Arab World
Human Resource Management Societies
The Recruitment Process
Selection Practices
How the Selection Process Works
Initial Selection
Substantive Selection
Contingent Selection
Training and Development Programs
Types of Training
Training Methods
Individualizing Formal Training to Fit the Employee’s Learning Style
Evaluating Effectiveness of Training Programs
Performance Evaluation
Purposes of Performance Evaluation
What Do We Evaluate?
Who Should Do the Evaluating?
Methods of Performance Evaluation
Providing Performance Feedback
Suggestions for Improving Performance Evaluations
Managing Diversity in Organizations
Work–Life Conflicts
Diversity Training
Global Implications
Selection
Performance Evaluation
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About HRM?
International OB Cultural Training
OB in the News Awareness of Human Capital From Within: ‘Project Emiratization’
Self-Assessment Library How Good Am I at Giving Performance Feedback?
Point/Counterpoint Telecommuting Makes Good Business Sense
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis So7i Wa Sari3
Research Exercise
5 Organization Dynamics
16 Organizational Change and Stress Management
Forces for Change
Planned Change
Resistance to change
Overcoming Resistance to Change
The Politics of Change
Approaches to Managing Organizational Change
Lewin’s Three-Step Model
Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change
Action Research
Organizational Development
Creating a Culture for Change
Stimulating a Culture of Innovation
Creating a Learning Organization
Work Stress and Its Management
What Is Stress?
Potential Sources of Stress
Individual Differences
Emotional Intelligence and Stress
Consequences of Stress
Managing Stress
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library How Well Do I Respond to Turbulent Change?
Self-Assessment Library How Stressful Is My Life?
OB in the News The Ten Most Stressful Jobs—and One More That Didn’t Make the List
International OB Coping with Stress: Cultural Differences
Point/Counterpoint Managing Change is an Episodic Activity
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis Embracing Change Through Operational Leadership
Research Exercise
17 Organizational Behavior in the Family Business
What Is a Family Business?
Definitions of the Family Business
Statistics about the Family Business
Planning the Family Business
Organizational Structure of the Family Business
The Characteristics of the Family Business
Organizational Behavior in the Family Business
Family Businesses Are Dominant in the Arab World
The Family Business in the Arab World
Advantages of the Family Business
Disadvantages of the Family Business
The Succession Plan
How and When Should the Business Be Transferred?
Family Business Continuity
The Future of the Family Business
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library Am I Experiencing Work/Family Conflict?
OB in the News The Family Business: The Foundation of Arab World Success
International OB Globalization: The Direction of Arab Family Businesses
Point/Counterpoint Is Structure Needed?
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis From London to Lebanon
Research Exercise
6 Specifics in OB
18 Intercultural Management: The Significance to Organizational Behavior
What Is Intercultural Management?
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Hofstede’s Dimensions and the Arab World
Managing Diversity
What Do Intercultural Managers Do?
Intercultural Managers’ Competencies
Cultural Awareness Framework
The Intercultural Manager as a Problem Solver
The Intercultural Manager as a Negotiator
The Significance of Communication for the Intercultural Manager
High versus Low Culture Contexts
How to Enhance Communication
The Intercultural Manager as Global Manager
Corporate Culture
Foreign Labour
Domains of International Business Practice
Cross-Cultural Training
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library Am I Well-Suited for a Career as a Global Manager?
OB in the News Yahoo! Talks Arabic; Maktoob Talks English!
International OB Intercultural Action at Hillcrest!
Point/Counterpoint “When in Rome, Do as the Romans Do”
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis What’s Trust Got to Do with It?
Research Exercise
19 Female Entrepreneurs in the Arab World
The Need for Women in the Workplace
Characteristics of Entrepreneurs
Growth of Women-Owned Businesses in the Arab World
The Role of Women in Business
The Female Entrepreneur in the Arab World
Motivation
Successful Female Entrepreneurs
The Barriers for Women in the Arab World
Low Income
Glass Ceiling
Gender Discrimination
Time Shifts
Nepotism
Other Challenges
How Do Males React to Successful Females?
Stereotypes Can Be Broken: Time for Change
Global Implications
Summary and Implications for Managers
Self-Assessment Library What Are My Gender Role Perceptions?
International OB The World Supports the Middle Eastern Woman
OB in the News Female Leaders in Business
Point/Counterpoint Females Can Find a Balance
Questions for Review
Discussion Exercise
Ethical Considerations
Critical Analysis No Matter What, the Boardroom Is Still Off Limits to Females!
Research Exercise
Appendix A: Research in Organizational Behavior
Comprehensive Cases
Case 1 Being Lean, Not Mean
Case 2 She Loves a Challenge!
Case 3 A New Way to Change
Case 4 What a Strange Man!
Case 5 A Question of Motivation
Case 6 The Big Promotion
Credits
Endnotes
Glossary
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
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Test Bank for Organizational Behavior Arab World Edition Stephen Robbins