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Test bank for Organisational Behaviour 8th Edition by Stephen Robbins

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Test bank for Organisational Behaviour 8th Edition by Stephen Robbins

Test bank for Organisational Behaviour 8th Edition by Stephen Robbins

Organizational Behaviour brings the subject to life with the very latest research and the finest business examples and practices from around the globe. Its hallmark approach of clear writing style, cutting-edge content, and engaging pedagogy provides a clearly explained three-level model of analyzing behavior by looking at the individual, the group, and the organization system in an easy-to-read design that breaks a material into manageable sections a rigorous and engaging introduction to the principles, theories, and practices of Organisational Behaviour, and an understanding of why these principles are important and relevant (whether or not you ever become a manager).

Table of Contents

Front Matter
Half title
Author dedications
Full title
Imprint
Brief contents
Contents
Preface
Guided tour
Acknowledgments
Case matrix
About the authors
Part 1 introduction
Chapter 1 What is organisational behaviour?
The importance of interpersonal skills
What managers do
Management functions
Management roles
Management skills
Effective versus successful managerial activities
A review of the manager’s job
Enter organisational behaviour
Complementing intuition with systematic study
Myth or Science? ‘Management by walking around is the most effective management’
Disciplines that contribute to the OB field
Psychology
Social psychology
Sociology
Anthropology
There are few absolutes in OB
Challenges and opportunities for OB
Responding to economic pressures
OB in Practice Organisational behaviour, productivity and big data
Responding to globalisation
Managing workforce diversity
Personal Inventory Assessments Multicultural Awareness Scale
Improving customer service and people skills
Working in networked organisations
Enhancing employee well-being at work
Improving ethical behaviour
Ethical Choice Holiday deficit disorder
Coming attractions: developing an OB model
An overview
Inputs
Processes
Outcomes
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Lost in translation?
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Intoxicated workplaces
Case study Apple goes global
Endnotes
Part 2 The individual
Chapter 2 Diversity in organisations
Diversity
Demographic characteristics of the Australian workforce
Levels of diversity
Discrimination
Personal Inventory Assessments Intercultural Sensitivity Scale
Biographical characteristics
Age
Gender
Myth or Science? ‘Bald is better’
Race and ethnicity
Ethical Choice Board quotas
Disability
Other biographical characteristics: tenure, religion, sexual orientation and gender identity
Ability
Intellectual abilities
The benefits of cultural intelligence
Physical abilities
The role of disabilities
Implementing diversity management strategies
Attracting, selecting, developing and retaining diverse employees
OB in Practice Twitter’s diversity issue
Diversity in groups
Effective diversity programs
Globalisation Worldwide talent search for women
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Affirmative action should be abolished
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Feeling excluded
Case study Human capital in the ageing workforce
Endnotes
Chapter 3 Attitudes and job satisfaction
Attitudes
What are the main components of attitudes?
Attitudes and behaviour
Moderating variables
Job attitudes
Ethical Choice Are employers responsible for workplace incivilities?
Globalisation Exodus phenomenon
Are these job attitudes really all that distinct?
Job satisfaction
Measuring job satisfaction
OB in Practice A clash of attitudes in health care
How satisfied are people with their jobs?
What causes job satisfaction?
Myth or Science? ‘Happy workers means happy profits’
Personal Inventory Assessments Core Self Evaluation (CSE) Scale
The impact of satisfied and dissatisfied employees on the workplace
Job satisfaction and job performance
Job satisfaction and OCB
Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction
Job satisfaction and absenteeism
Job satisfaction and turnover
Job satisfaction and workplace deviance
Managers often ‘don’t get it’
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Employer–employee loyalty is an outdated concept
Questions for review
Experiential exercise What factors are most important to your job satisfaction?
Case study Job crafting
Endnotes
Chapter 4 Personality and values
Personality
What is personality?
Personal Inventory Assessments Are You a Type A Personality?
The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator
The Big Five Model
How do the Big Five traits predict behaviour at work?
The Dark Triad
Other personality traits relevant to OB
Core self-evaluation
Self-monitoring
Myth or Science? ‘We can accurately judge individuals’ personalities a few seconds after meeting
Proactive personality
Personality and situations
Situation strength
Trait activation theory
Globalisation Is the personality profile of an entrepreneur the same across different countries?
Values
The importance of values
OB in Practice Dealing with issues of personality in the workplace
Terminal versus instrumental values
Generational values
Linking an individual’s personality and values to the workplace
Person–job fit
Person–organisation fit
Ethical Choice Do you have a cheating personality?
International values
Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures
The globe framework for assessing cultures
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Millennials are more narcissistic
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Generational values and ‘staying put’
Case study The power of quiet
Endnotes
Chapter 5 Emotions and moods
What are emotions and moods?
The basic emotions
The basic moods: positive and negative affect
Myth or Science? ‘Smile, and the work world smiles with you’
The function of emotions
Sources of emotions and moods
Emotional labour
OB in Practice How leaders can influence emotions in the workplace
Affective events theory
Emotional intelligence
The case for EI
The case against EI
Ethical Choice Should managers use emotional intelligence (EI) tests?
Personal Inventory Assessments Emotional Intelligence Assessment
Emotion regulation
OB applications of emotions and moods
Selection
Decision making
Creativity
Motivation
Leadership
Negotiation
Customer service
Job attitudes
Deviant workplace behaviours
Safety and injury at work
How managers can influence moods
Globalisation Creating highly productive teams across the cultural emotional barrier
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Sometimes blowing your top is a good thing
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Who can catch a liar?
Case study Can you read emotions from faces?
Endnotes
Chapter 6 Perception and individual decision making
What is perception?
Factors that influence perception
Person perception: making judgments about others
Attribution theory
Globalisation Does multicultural experience make for better decisions?
Common shortcuts in judging others
Specific applications of shortcuts in organisations
The link between perception and individual decision making
Decision making in organisations
The rational model, bounded rationality and intuition
Common biases and errors in decision making
OB in Practice The perceptive coach
Myth or Science? ‘All stereotypes are negative’
Influences on decision making: individual differences and organisational constraints
Individual differences
Ethical Choice Choosing to lie
Organisational constraints
Three ethical decision criteria
Improving creativity in decision making
Creative behaviour
Causes of creative behaviour
Personal Inventory Assessments Creativity Scale
Creative outcomes (Innovation)
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Stereotypes are dying
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Five ethical decisions
Case study The youngest billionaire
Endnotes
Chapter 7 Motivation: from concept to application
Defining motivation
Early theories of motivation
Hierarchy of needs theory
Theory X and Theory Y
Two-factor theory
Contemporary theories of motivation
Self-determination theory
Myth or Science? ‘Money can’t buy happiness’
Goal-setting theory
Other contemporary theories of motivation
Self-efficacy theory
Reinforcement theory
Equity theory/organisational justice
Expectancy theory
Personal Inventory Assessments Work Motivation Indicator
Applied motivation: job design
The job characteristics model
Globalisation Outcry over executive pay is heard everywhere
How can jobs be redesigned?
Job rotation
Job enrichment
Alternative work arrangements
Flexitime
Job sharing
Telecommuting
The social and physical context of work
Applied motivation: employee involvement
Examples of employee involvement programs
Linking employee involvement programs and motivation theories
Applied motivation: rewarding employees
What do we actually mean by ‘pay’?
What to pay: establishing a pay structure
How to pay: rewarding individual employees through variable-pay programs
Flexible benefits: developing a benefits package
OB in Practice Good leaders help create motivating workplaces
Intrinsic rewards: employee recognition programs
Ethical Choice Sweatshops and worker safety
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint ‘Face-time’ matters
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Assessing employee motivation and satisfaction using the job characteristics
Case study Equity and executive pay
Endnotes
Part 3 The group
Chapter 8 Foundations of group behaviour
Defining and classifying groups
Why do people form groups?
OB in Practice Building a culture of constructive feedback
Stages of group development
The five-stage model
An alternative model for temporary groups with deadlines
Group properties
Group property 1: roles
Group property 2: norms
Group property 3: status, and group property 4: size and dynamics
Group property 5: cohesiveness, and group property 6: diversity
Personal Inventory Assessments Communicating Supportively
Group decision making
Groups versus the individual
Globalisation Making global virtual teams effective
Groupthink and groupshift
Myth or Science? ‘US workers are more biased than Asians’
Ethical Choice Using peer pressure as an influence tactic
Group decision-making techniques
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint People are more creative when they work alone
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Wilderness survival
Case study Negative aspects of collaboration
Endnotes
Chapter 9 Understanding work teams
Why have teams become so popular?
Differences between groups and teams
Types of teams
Problem-solving teams
Self-managed work teams
Cross-functional teams
Virtual teams
OB in Practice Discussing the popularity of a leader
Multi-team systems
Creating effective teams
Contextual factors
Team composition
Globalisation Developing team members’ trust across cultures
Myth or Science? ‘Team members who are “hot” should make the play’
Team processes
Personal Inventory Assessments Team Development Behaviours
Turning individuals into team players
Selection: hiring team players
Training: creating team players
Rewarding: providing incentives to be a good team player
Ethical Choice Virtual teams leave a smaller carbon footprint
Beware! Teams aren’t always the answer
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint To get the most out of teams, empower them
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Composing the ‘perfect’ team
Case study Tongue-tied in teams
Endnotes
Chapter 10 Communication
Functions of communication
The communication process
Direction of communication
Downward communication
Upward communication
Lateral communication
Organisational communication
Formal small-group networks
The grapevine
Modes of communication
Oral communication
Written communication
Non-verbal communication
Personal Inventory Assessments Communication Styles
OB in Practice The value of the message
Ethical Choice Using employees in organisational social media strategy
Choice of communication channel
Persuasive communications
Automatic and controlled processing
Interest level
Prior knowledge
Personality
Message characteristics
Barriers to effective communication
Filtering
Selective perception
Information overload
Emotions
Language
Silence
Communication apprehension
Lying
Myth or Science? ‘Today, writing skills are more important than speaking skills’
Global implications
Cultural barriers
Cultural context
A cultural guide
Globalisation Multinational firms adopt English as global language strategy
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Social media presence
Questions for review
Experiential exercise An absence of non-verbal communication
Case study Using social media to your advantage
Endnotes
Chapter 11 Leadership
What is leadership?
Trait theories
Behavioural theories
Summary of trait theories and behavioural theories
Contingency theories
The Fiedler model
Globalisation Leaders broaden their span of control in multinational organisations
Other contingency theories
Leader–member exchange (LMX) theory
Charismatic leadership and transformational leadership
Charismatic leadership
Transformational leadership
Personal Inventory Assessments Ethical Leadership Assessment
Authentic leadership: ethics and trust
What is authentic leadership?
Ethical leadership
Servant leadership
Trust and leadership
Ethical Choice Holding leaders ethically accountable
How is trust developed?
Trust as a process
What are the consequences of trust?
Leading for the future: mentoring
Myth or Science? ‘Top leaders feel the most stress’
Challenges to the leadership construct
Leadership as an attribution
Substitutes for and neutralisers of leadership
Online leadership
Finding and creating effective leaders
Selecting leaders
Training leaders
OB in Practice What influence do you exert as a leader?
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Heroes are made, not born
Questions for review
Experiential exercise What is a leader?
Case study Leadership factories
Endnotes
Chapter 12 Power and politics
A definition of power
Bases of power
Formal power
Personal power
Which bases of power are most effective?
Dependency: the key to power
The general dependency postulate
What creates dependency?
Power tactics
Globalisation Power, gender and sexual harassment in France
Sexual harassment: unequal power in the workplace
OB in Practice How power affects people
Ethical Choice Should all sexual behaviour be prohibited at work?
Politics: power in action
Definition of organisational politics
The reality of politics
Causes and consequences of political behaviour
Factors contributing to political behaviour
Myth or Science? ‘Powerful leaders keep their (fr)enemies close’
How do people respond to organisational politics?
Impression management
The ethics of behaving politically
Personal Inventory Assessments Gaining Power and Influence
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Everyone wants power
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Understanding power dynamics
Case study Barry’s peer becomes his boss
Endnotes
Chapter 13 Conflict and negotiation
A definition of conflict
Traditional view of conflict
Interactionist view of conflict
Types and loci of conflict
Types of conflict
Loci of conflict
The conflict process
Stage I: potential opposition or incompatibility
OB in Practice Tips for managing family conflicts in business
Stage II: cognition and personalisation
Stage III: intentions
Stage IV: behaviour
Stage V: outcomes
Negotiation
Bargaining strategies
Myth or Science? ‘Teams negotiate better than individuals in collectivistic cultures’
The negotiation process
Individual differences in negotiation effectiveness
Globalisation Trust is an issue
Third-party negotiations
Ethical Choice Using empathy to negotiate more ethically
Personal Inventory Assessments Strategies for Handling Conflict
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Conflict benefits organisations
Questions for review
Experiential exercise A negotiation role-play
Case study Choosing your battles
Endnotes
Part 4 The organisation system
Chapter 14 Foundations of organisational structure
What is organisational structure?
Work specialisation
Departmentalisation
Chain of command
OB in Practice Unleashing the constraints of structure
Span of control
Centralisation and decentralisation
Formalisation
Common organisational designs
The simple structure
The bureaucracy
Ethical Choice Ethical concerns of deskless workplaces
The matrix structure
New design options
The virtual organisation
The boundaryless organisation
Globalisation The world is my corporate headquarters
The leaner organisation: downsizing
Personal Inventory Assessments Organisational Structure Assessment
Why do structures differ?
Strategy
Organisation size
Technology
Myth or Science? ‘Employees can work just as well from home’
Environment
Organisational designs and employee behaviour
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint The end of management
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Dismantling a bureaucracy
Case study Boeing Dreamliner: engineering nightmare or organisational disaster?
Endnotes
Chapter 15 Organisational culture
What is organisational culture?
A definition of organisational culture
Culture is a descriptive term
Do organisations have uniform cultures?
Strong versus weak cultures
Culture versus formalisation
What do cultures do?
Culture’s functions
Culture creates climate
The ethical dimension of culture
Culture and innovation
Culture as an asset
Culture as a liability
Globalisation Creating a multinational organisational culture
Creating and sustaining culture
How a culture begins
Keeping a culture alive
Myth or Science? ‘An organisation’s culture is forever’
OB in Practice Dealing with a toxic culture in hospitals
Summary: how cultures form
How employees learn culture
Stories
Rituals
Symbols
Language
Creating an ethical organisational culture
Ethical Choice A culture of compassion
Creating a positive organisational culture
Building on employee strengths
Rewarding more than punishing
Emphasising vitality and growth
Limits of positive culture
Spirituality and organisational culture
What is spirituality?
Why spirituality now?
Characteristics of a spiritual organisation
Criticisms of spirituality
Global organisational culture
Personal Inventory Assessments Comfort with Change Scale
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Organisations should strive to create a positive organisational culture
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Rate your classroom culture
Case study Mergers don’t always lead to culture clashes
Endnotes
Chapter 16 Organisational change and stress management
Forces for change
Planned change
Resistance to change
Globalisation The state of perpetual change: globalisation
Overcoming resistance to change
The politics of change
Approaches to managing organisational change
Lewin’s three-step model
Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change
Action research
Organisational development
OB in Practice Can coaches really help in times of change?
Creating a culture for change
Stimulating a culture of innovation
Creating a learning organisation
Organisational change and stress
Work stress and its management
What is stress?
Potential sources of stress
Myth or Science? ‘When you’re working hard, sleep is optional’
Individual differences
Ethical Choice Manager and employee stress during organisational change
Cultural differences
Consequences of stress
Managing stress
Personal Inventory Assessments Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale
Summary
Implications for managers
Point/Counterpoint Responsible managers relieve the stress on their employees
Questions for review
Experiential exercise Strategising change
Case study When companies fail to change
Endnotes
Glossary
Index
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Test bank for Organisational Behaviour 8th Edition by Stephen Robbins