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Test Bank for Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists Engineers and Managers 9th Edition by David L. Goetsch

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Test Bank for Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists Engineers and Managers 9th Edition by David L. Goetsch
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Test Bank for Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists Engineers and Managers 9th Edition by David L. Goetsch

Test Bank for Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists Engineers and Managers 9th Edition by David L. Goetsch

This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book. For courses in industrial safety and mechanical technology. Most complete guide to OSHA standards, for tomorrow’s practitioners Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists, Engineers, and Managers provides a practical teaching resource preparing future safety and health professionals to practice in an age of rising global competition and technological change. In addition to covering OSHA standards and all core safety and health topics, Goetsch explores critical safety issues not covered in OSHA. The text suits postsecondary students of safety engineering, safety management, or occupational safety, plus students who need a comprehensive safety and health course. The 9th edition is a major revision encompassing new and revised regulations and other updates of importance to students of occupational safety and health.

Occupational Safety and Health For Technologists, Engineers, and Managers
Preface
Background
Why was this Book Written and for Whom?
Organization of the Book
Supplements
How this Book Differs from Others
New to this Edition
About the Author
Introduction
Brief Contents
Contents
Part One Historical Perspective and Overview
Chapter One Safety and Health Movement, Then and Now
Learning Objectives
Developments Before the Industrial Revolution
Milestones in the Safety Movement
Tragedies That Have Changed the Safety Movement
Hawk’s Nest Tragedy
Asbestos Menace
Bhopal Tragedy
Factory Fire in Bangladesh
Role of Organized Labor
West Fertilizer Company Explosion
Role of Specific Health Problems
Safety and Health Standards Apply to More Than Just Manufacturing
Development of Accident Prevention Programs
Development of Safety Organizations
Safety and Health Movement Today
Integrated Approach to Safety and Health
New Materials, New Processes, and New Problems
Rapid Growth in the Profession
Does Moving Manufacturing Jobs Overseas Reduce the Accident Rate?
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Two Accidents and Their Effects
Learning Objectives
Costs of Accidents
Accidental Deaths in the United States
Accidents versus Other Causes of Death
Work Accident Costs and Rates
Time Lost Because of Work Injuries
Deaths in Work Accidents
Work Injuries by Type of Accident
Death Rates by Industry
Parts of the Body Injured on the Job
Estimating the Cost of Accidents
Cost-Estimation Method
Other Cost-Estimation Methods
Estimating Hidden Costs
Global Impact of Accidents and Injuries
OSHA Reports and Logs
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Three Theories of Accident Causation
Learning Objectives
Domino Theory of Accident Causation
Heinrich’s Axioms of Industrial Safety
Heinrich’s Domino Theory
Heinrich’s Theory and Corrective Action
Domino Theory in Practice
Human Factors Theory of Accident Causation
Overload
Inappropriate Response and Incompatibility
Inappropriate Activities
Human Factors Theory in Practice
Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation
Accident/Incident Theory in Practice
Epidemiological Theory of Accident Causation
Epidemiological Theory in Practice
Limitations of Event-Chain Accident Causation Theories
Systems Theory of Accident Causation
Systems Theory in Practice
Combination Theory of Accident Causation
Combination Theory in Practice
Behavioral Theory of Accident Causation
Behavioral Theory in Action
Individual Factors and Accident Causation
Warning Signs
Sources of Help
Management Failures and Accident Causation
Role of the Supervisor in Workplace Safety and Health
Typical Management Failures that Cause Accidents
Obesity and Accident Causation
Swiss Cheese Model of Accident Causation
Summary of Accident Causation Models and Applications
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Four Roles and Professional Certifications for Safety and Health Professionals
Learning Objectives
Modern Safety and Health Teams
Safety and Health Manager
Job of the Safety and Health Manager
Role in the Company Hierarchy
Problems Safety and Health Managers Face
Lack of Commitment
Production versus Safety
Company-Wide Commitment to Safety and Health
Lack of Resources
Productivity, Quality, Cost, and Response Time
Image and Service
Education and Training for Safety and Health Managers
Helpful Agencies and Organizations
Engineers and Safety
Design Process
Safety Engineer
Industrial Engineers and Safety
Environmental Engineers and Safety
Chemical Engineers and Safety
Industrial Hygienist
Health Physicist
Occupational Physician
Occupational Health Nurse
Risk Manager
Employees and Safety
Certification of Safety and Health Professionals
Certified Safety Professional
Academic Requirement
Experience Requirement
Examination Requirements
Certified Industrial Hygienist
Certification Process
Certification Maintenance
Certified Professional Ergonomist
Associate-Level Certification
Bachelor’s Degree Certification
Certified Occupational Health Nurse
Academic and Experience Requirements
Other Safety and Health-Related Certifications
Emerging Role of Safety Professionals
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Five Safety, Health, and Competition in the Global Marketplace
Learning Objectives
Competitiveness Defined
Productivity and Competitiveness
Productivity: A Global View
Quality and Competitiveness
Quality: A Global View
How Safety and Health can Improve Competitiveness
Productivity and Cost
Quality
Response Time
Service
Image
Osha Regulations and Competitiveness
Not All Government Regulations Are Created Alike: OSHA versus Other Regulations
OSHA’s Mandatory Analysis of Regulatory Impact
Rise of the Industrial Sector in China
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Part Two Laws and Regulations
Chapter Six The Osh Act, Standards, and Liability
Learning Objectives
Rationale for the Osh Act
OSHA’s Mission and Purpose
OSH Act Coverage
Coverage of Federal, State, and Local Government Personnel
OSHA Standards
How OSHA Standards Are Developed
Input from and Help for Small Business in Standards Development and Compliance
OSHA Standards versus OSHA Regulations
How Standards Are Adopted, Amended, or Revoked
How to Read an OSHA Standard
Temporary Emergency Standards
How to Appeal a Standard
Requesting a Variance
Temporary Variance
Permanent Variance
Other Variances
Confined Space Standard
Hazardous Waste Standard
OSHA’s Record Keeping and Reporting
Reporting Requirements
Electronic Reporting Requirements
Record-Keeping Requirements
Reporting and Record-Keeping Summary
Incidence Rates
Record-Keeping and Reporting Exceptions
Keeping Employees Informed
Workplace Inspections and Enforcement
OSHA’s Whistleblower Program
OSHA’s Enhanced Enforcement Policy
OSHA’s Severe Violator Enforcement Program
Follow-Up Inspections
Programmed Inspections
Public Awareness
Settlements
Section 11(b) Summary Enforcement Orders
Citations and Penalties
OSHA Fines: How Much and Where Does the Money Go?
Appeals Process
Employee Appeals
Employer Appeals
Petition for Modification of Abatement
Notice of Contest
State-Level OSHA Programs
Services Available from OSHA
Consultation Services
Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program
Cooperative Programs
Alliance Program
OSHA Strategic Partnership Program
Challenge Program
Voluntary Protection Programs
Susan Harwood Training Grants
Training and Education Services
Employer Rights and Responsibilities
Employer Rights
Employer Responsibilities
Employee Rights and Responsibilities
Employee Rights
Employee Responsibilities
Keeping Up-To-Date on OSHA
Problems with OSHA
OSHA’s “Guide to Restroom Access for Transgender Workers”
Other Agencies and Organizations
NIOSH
Division of Biomedical and Behavioral Science
Division of Respiratory Disease Studies
Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies
Division of Training and Manpower Development
OSHRC
Mine Safety and Health Administration
Federal Railroad Administration
OSHA’s General Industry Standards
Subpart D: Walking–Working Surfaces
Subpart E: Exit Routes and Emergency Planning
Subpart F: Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms
Subpart G: Occupational Health and Environmental Controls
Subpart H: Hazardous Materials
Subpart I: Personal Protective Equipment
Subpart J: General Environment Controls
Subpart K: Medical and First Aid
Subpart L: Fire Protection
Subpart M: Compressed Gas/Air
Subpart N: Materials Handling and Storage
Subpart O: Machinery and Machine Guarding
Subpart P: Hand Tools/Portable Power Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment
Subpart Q: Welding, Cutting, and Brazing
Subpart R: Special Industries
Subpart S: Electrical
Subpart T: Commercial Diving Operations
Subpart Z: Toxic and Hazardous Substances
OSHA’s Maritime Standards
Part 1915: Shipyard Employment
Part 1917: Marine Terminals
Part 1918: Longshoring
Part 1919: Gear Certification
OSHA’s Construction Standards
Standards and Codes
Laws And Liability
Fundamental Legal Principles
Negligence
Liability
Care
Ability to Pay
Damages
Proximate Cause
Willful/Reckless Conduct
Tort
Foreseeability
OSHA’s Stand on Safety Incentives
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Seven Workers’ Compensation
Learning Objectives
Overview of Workers’ Compensation
Objectives of Workers’ Compensation
Replacement of Income
Rehabilitation of the Injured Employee
Prevention of Accidents
Cost Allocation
Who Is Covered by Workers’ Compensation and Who Is Not
Historical Perspective
Workers’ Compensation Legislation
Modern Workers’ Compensation
Workers’ Compensation Insurance
Resolution of Workers’ Compensation Disputes
Injuries and Workers’ Compensation
AOE and COE Injuries
Who Is an Employee?
Disabilities and Workers’ Compensation
Temporary Disability
Permanent Partial Disability
Whole-Person Theory
Wage-Loss Theory
Loss of Wage-Earning-Capacity Theory
Permanent Total Disability
Monetary Benefits of Workers’ Compensation
Death and Burial Benefits
Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation and Workers’ Compensation
Medical Management of Workplace Injuries
Administration and Case Management
Cost Allocation
Problems with Workers’ Compensation
Spotting Workers’ Compensation Fraud and Abuse
Future of Workers’ Compensation
Controlling Rising Workers’ Compensation Costs
Cost-Reduction Strategies
General Strategies
Specific Strategies
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Eight Accident Investigation and Reporting
Learning Objectives
Types of Accident Investigations
When to Investigate
What to Investigate
A Five-Component Approach to Accident Investigation
Common Causes of Accidents
Why Safety Professionals Need to Know the Common Causes of Accidents
Who Should Investigate
Conducting the Investigation
Isolate the Accident Scene
Record All Evidence
Photograph or Videotape the Scene
Identify Witnesses
Interview Witnesses
Following Up an Accident Investigation
Interviewing Witnesses
When to Interview
Where to Interview
How to Interview
Reporting Accidents
Why Some Accidents Are Not Reported
Discipline and Accident Reporting
Who Is Responsible for Reporting?
Ten Accident Investigation Mistakes to Avoid
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Nine Product Safety and Liability
Learning Objectives
Product Liability and the Law
Lawsuit Process
History of Product Liability Law
MacPherson v. Buick Motor Company
Henningson v. Bloomfield Motors Inc.
Greenman v. Yuba Products Inc.
Van der Mark v. Ford Motor Company
Strict Liability in Tort
Statutory Product Liability Laws
Applying Product Liability Laws
Community Right-to-Know Act
Emergency Planning
Emergency Notification
Reporting Requirements
Toxic Chemical Release Reporting
Developing a Product Safety Program
Product Safety Coordinator
Product Safety Committee
Product Safety Auditor
Evaluating the Product Safety Program
Preparing to Evaluate the Program
Conducting the Evaluation
Role of the Safety and Health Professional
Quality Management and Product Safety
Product Safety Program Record Keeping
User Feedback Collection and Analysis
Product Literature and Safety
Product Recalls and Safety Professionals
The Safety and Health Professional’s Role
Government Regulatory Agencies
Advising Higher Management on Product Recall Decisions
Warning Labels and Product Safety
Warning Labels on Chemicals: OSHA’s Requirements
Reading Warning Labels
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Part Three The Human Element
Chapter Ten Ergonomic Hazards: Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs)
Learning Objectives
Ergonomics Defined
Human Factors and Ergonomic Hazards
Human Factors Defined
Human Factors in Action
Human Factors and Safety
Factors Associated with Physical Stress
Sitting versus Standing
Stationary versus Moveable/Mobile
Large versus Small Demand for Strength/Power
Good versus Bad Horizontal Work Area
Good versus Bad Vertical Work Area
Nonrepetitive versus Repetitive Motion
Low versus High Surface Contact
Absence versus Presence of Negative Environmental Factors
Ergonomics: A Political Football
Osha’s Voluntary Ergonomics Guidelines
OSHA’s Ergonomics Standard (Voluntary Guidelines)
Enforcement by OSHA
Rationale for the Voluntary Guidelines
Application of the Voluntary Guidelines
Proposed Requirements of the Voluntary Guidelines
Worksite Analysis Program for Ergonomics
Information Sources
Records Analysis and Tracking
Incidence Rates
Screening Surveys
Checklist
Ergonomic Risk Factors
CTD Risk Factors
Back Disorder Risk Factors
Multiple Risk Factors
Ergonomic Job Hazard Analyses
Workstation Analysis
Lifting Hazards
DVD
Periodic Ergonomic Surveys
Feedback and Follow-Up
Trend Analysis
Hazard Prevention and Control
Workstation Design
Design of Work Methods
Tool Design and Handles
Medical Management Program
Trained and Available HealthCare Providers
Periodic Workplace Walk-Through
Symptoms Survey
Institute a Survey
Conduct the Survey Annually
Keep a List of Light-Duty Jobs
Health Surveillance
Baseline
Conditioning Period Follow-Up
Periodic Health Surveillance
Employee Training and Education
Encourage Early Report of Symptoms
Protocols for Healthcare Providers
Evaluation, Treatment, and Follow-Up of CTDs
OSHA Record-Keeping Forms
Monitor Trends
Training and Education
Common Indicators of Problems
Apparent Trends in Accidents and Injuries
Incidence of CTDs
Absenteeism and High Turnover Rates
Employee Complaints
Employee-Generated Changes
Poor Quality
Manual Material Handling
Identifying Specific Ergonomic Problems
General Observation
Questionnaires and Interviews
Videotaping and Photography
Drawing or Sketching
Measuring the Work Environment
Understanding the Ergonomics of Aging
Anthropometry and Ergonomics
Ergonomic Problem-Solving Strategies
Seated Repetitive Work with Light Parts
Seated Work with Larger Parts
Seated Control Work
Standing Work
Standing for Heavy Lifting and Carrying
Work with Hands above Chest Height
Work with Hand Tools
Work with VDTs
Economics of Ergonomics
Inhibitors of Cost-Benefit Studies
Cumulative Trauma Disorders/Soft Tissue Injuries
Definition
Classifications of CTDs
Muscle and Tendon Disorders
Cervical Radiculopathy
Tunnel Syndromes
Nerve and Circulation Disorders
Preventing CTDs
Lifting Hazards
Back Safety/Lifting Program
Proper Lifting Techniques
Helpful Assessment Tools: NIOSH, RULA, REBA, and HAL
NIOSH Ergonomic Guidelines for Manual Material Handling (EGMMH)
RULA Assessment Tool
REBA Assessment Tool
ACGIH HAL and the Strain Index Assessment Tools
Participatory Ergonomics
Making PE Interventions Effective
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Eleven Stress and Safety
Learning Objectives
Workplace Stress Defined
Sources of Workplace Stress
Common Causes of Stress in the Workplace
Making Use of the List of Common Causes of Stress
Human Reactions to Workplace Stress
Measurement of Workplace Stress
Shift Work, Stress, and Safety
Reducing the Stress Associated with Shift Work
Improving Safety by Reducing Workplace Stress
Stress in Safety Managers
Stress and Workers’ Compensation
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twelve Safety and Health Training
Learning Objectives
Rationale For Safety and Health Training
Legal and Ethical Reasons for Training
Who Is Responsible for Training?
Education and Training Requirements
OSHA Training Requirements
MSHA Training Requirements
Safety and Health Professionals as Trainers
Principles of Learning
Four-Step Teaching Method
Preparing Safety and Health Instruction
Planning Instruction
Lesson Title and Number
Statement of Purpose
Learning Objectives
Training Aids List
Instructional Approach
Application Assignments
Evaluation Methodology
Presenting Safety and Health Instruction
Lecture-Discussion Method
Demonstration Method
Conference Method
Other Presentation Methods
Simulation
DVDs
Programmed Instruction
Online Training (E-Learning)
Applying Safety and Health Instruction
Evaluating Safety and Health Instruction
Training Supervisors
Training New and Transferred Employees
Orientation
Job-Specific Procedures
Follow-Up
Job Safety Analysis as a Training Technique
Break Down the Job into Steps
Identify Potential Hazards
Develop Accident Prevention Procedures
Using the JSA as a Training Technique
Training Opportunities Available
OSHA, NIOSH, MSHA, and NSC
OSHA
NIOSH
MSHA
NSC
Illiteracy and Safety
Impact of Illiteracy on Industry
OSHA and the Illiteracy Problem
Industry’s Role in Fighting Illiteracy
Role of Safety and Health Professionals in Literacy Training
English as a Second Language Training Issues
Modifying Training Methods
Considering Cultural Concerns
OSHA Standards and Training
OSHA’s Forklift Standard: An Example of Prescriptive Training Requirements
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Thirteen Violence in the Workplace
Learning Objectives
Occupational Safety and Workplace Violence: The Relationship
Workplace Violence: Definitions
Legal Considerations
Rights of Violent Employees
Employer Liability for Workplace Violence
Making Work-Related Determinations
Risk-Reduction Strategies
OSHA’s Voluntary Guidelines on Workplace Violence
Management Commitment and Employee Involvement
Workplace Analysis
Records Monitoring and Tracking
Trend Monitoring and Incident Analysis
Employee Surveys and Focus Groups
Security Analysis
Hazard Prevention and Control
Engineering Controls
Administrative Controls
Postincident Response
Training and Education
Record Keeping and Evaluation
Reporting Suspicious People or Behaviors
Active Shooter Response
Role of Supervisors
Workplace Violence: Policy, Plan, and Programs
Employer Responsibilities
Employee Responsibilities
Union Responsibilities
Communicating with Personnel in the Aftermath of a Violent Incident
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Part Four Hazard Assessment, Prevention, and Control
Chapter Fourteen Mechanical Hazards and Machine Safeguarding
Learning Objectives
Common Mechanical Injuries
Cutting and Tearing
Shearing
Crushing
Breaking
Straining and Spraining
Puncturing
Safeguarding Defined
OSHA’s Requirements for Machine Guarding
Minimum General Requirements for Safeguards
Risk Assessment in Machine Operation
Associated risk factors ranging from lowest (B) to highest (4)
Risk Assessment Model
Design Requirements for Safeguards
Point-of-Operation Guards
Point-of-Operation Devices
How to Choose a Machine Guard or Device
Machine Guarding Self-Assessment
Feeding and Ejection Systems
Robot Safeguards
Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout Systems)
Lockout/Tagout Language
Provisions of the Standard
Permanent Electrical Safety Devices in Lockout/Tagout Programs
Evaluating Lockout/Tagout Programs
General Precautions
Basic Program Content
Taking Corrective Action
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Fifteen Falling, Impact, Acceleration, and Vision Hazards with Appropriate PPE
Learning Objectives
Causes of Falls
Kinds of Falls
Walking and Slipping
Measuring Surface Traction
Factors That Decrease Traction
General Strategies for Preventing Slips
Specific Strategies for Preventing Slips
Building Lobbies
Restrooms
Kitchens
Processing Areas
Slip and Fall Prevention Programs
Practical Prevention Measures
OSHA Fall Protection Standards
Testing Fall Protection Equipment
OSHA’s Fall Protection Standard for Construction
OSHA’s Recommendations for Effective Fall Protection
ANSI Z359 Fall Protection Code
ANSI Z359.2: Managed Fall Protection Program
Ladder Safety
Inspecting Ladders
Do’s and Don’ts of Ladder Use
What To Do After a Fall
Monitor Fall Protection Equipment and Know Why it Fails
Impact and Acceleration Hazards
Protection from Falling or Accelerating Objects
Head Protection
Types and Classes of Hard Hats
Eye and Face Protection
Assessing the Workplace for Eye Hazards
Requirements When Choosing Vision-Protection Devices
Training
First Aid for Eye Injuries
Contact Lenses in a Chemical Environment
Foot Protection
OSHA Regulations Relating to Footwear
Standing Hazards
Antifatigue Mats
Shoe Inserts
Foot Rails
Workplace Design
Sit/Stand Chairs
Proper Footwear
Hand Protection
Common Glove Materials
Personal Protective Equipment
Forklift Safety (Powered Industrial Trucks)
General Rules
OSHA’s Training Requirements
Initial Training Program Content
Refresher Training Program Content
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Sixteen Hazards of Temperature Extremes
Learning Objectives
Thermal Comfort
Heat Stress and Strain
Heat Stress Defined
Heat Strain Defined
Recognizing Heat Strain
Clothing
CLO as a Measurement for Clothing and PPE Selection
Heat Stress Management
General Controls
Specific Controls
Cold Stress
Preventing Cold Stress
Burns and Their Effects
Human Skin
Severity of Burns
Minor Burns
Moderate Burns
Critical Burns
Chemical Burns
Effects of Chemical Burns
Infection
Fluid Loss
Shock
First Aid for Chemical Burns
OSHA’s Guidelines for Hazards of Temperature Extremes
OSHA’s Recommendations for Preventing Cold-Related Injuries and Illnesses
OSHA’s Recommendations for Preventing Heat-Related Injuries and Illnesses
Enforcement by OSHA Relating to Hazards of Temperature Extremes
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Seventeen Pressure Hazards
Learning Objectives
Pressure Hazards Defined
Sources of Pressure Hazards
Boilers and Pressure Hazards
High-Temperature Water Hazards
Hazards of Unfired Pressure Vessels
Hazards of High-Pressure Systems
Cracking Hazards in Pressure Vessels
Deaerator Vessels
Amine Vessels
Wet Hydrogen Sulfide Vessels
Ammonia Vessels
Pulp Digester Vessels
Nondestructive Testing of Pressure Vessels
Visual Examination
Liquid Penetration Test
Magnetic Particle Test
X-ray Radiography
Ultrasonic Test
Pressure Dangers to Humans
Decompression Procedures
Measurement of Pressure Hazards
Reduction of Pressure Hazards
OSHA’s Standard and Guidelines for Pressure Hazards
Confined Spaces and Pressure Vessels
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Eighteen Electrical Hazards
Learning Objectives
Electrical Hazards Defined
Sources of Electrical Hazards
Electrostatic Hazards
Arcs and Sparks Hazards
Combustible and Explosive Materials
Lightning Hazards
Improper Wiring
Insulation Failure
Equipment Failure
Hazardous Locations for Electrical Equipment
Electrical Hazards to Humans
Detection of Electrical Hazards
Reduction of Electrical Hazards
OSHA’s Electrical Standards
Electrical Safety Program
Electrical Hazards Self-Assessment
Prevention of Arc-Flash Injuries
Maintenance Requirements of NFPA 70E
Training Requirements for Workers
Permanent Electrical Safety Devices
Hazards of Power Strips and Daisy Chains
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Nineteen Fire Hazards and Life Safety
Learning Objectives
Fire Hazards Defined
Sources of Fire Hazards
Fire Dangers to Humans
Detection of Fire Hazards
Reduction of Fire Hazards
Number, Location, and Selection of Portable Fire Extinguishers
Fire-Extinguishing Systems
OSHA’S Regulations for Fire Brigades
Disaster Preparations
Preventing Office Fires
Development of Fire Safety Standards
OSHA Fire Standards
OSHA and Fire Prevention Plans
OSHA’s Requirements for Exit Routes
Life Safety
Basic Requirements
Means of Egress
Flame-Resistant Clothing
Apparel/PPE
Fire Safety Programs
Assessment
Planning
Awareness and Prevention
Response and Fire Drills
Explosive Hazards
Explosives-Related Concepts
Common Uses of Flammable and Combustible Substances
Other Health Hazards of Explosive Materials
OSHA’s Firefighting Options
Option 1: All Employees Fight Fires
Option 2: Designated Employees Fight Fires
Option 3: Fire Brigades Fight Fires
Self-Assessment in Fire Protection
Hot Work Program
Components of the Hot Work Program17
Fire Safety Equipment
Precautionary Work Practices
Contractor Requirements
Fire Watch Requirements
Permit Requirements
Chemical Burn Injuries
Heat Burn Injuries
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty Industrial Hygiene and Confined Spaces
Learning Objectives
Overview of Industrial Hygiene
Role of the Safety and Health Professional
Industrial Hygiene Standards
OSH Act and Industrial Hygiene
OSHA Process Safety Standard and Management Guidelines
Application
Coverage and Exceptions
Process Safety Information
OSHA Regulation for Chemical Spills
Hazards in the Workplace
Safety Data Sheets
Global Harmonization of Hazard Communication
Environmental Stressors
Toxic Substances Defined
Entry Points for Toxic Agents
Inhalation
Absorption
Ingestion
Injection
Effects of Toxic Substances
Relationship of Doses and Responses
Dose Threshold
Lethal Dose
Lethal Concentration
Airborne Contaminants
Effects of Airborne Toxics
Irritants
Asphyxiants
Narcotics and Anesthetics
Effects of Carcinogens
Asbestos Hazards
Asbestos Removal and Containment
Removal
Enclosure
Encapsulation
Personal Protective Equipment for Asbestos Removal
Medical Records and Examinations
Indoor Air Quality and “Sick-Building” Syndrome
ANSI’s Indoor Air Quality/HVAC Standard
Toxic Mold and Indoor Air Quality
Toxic Mold Assessment and Remediation
ASTM D7338: Guide for the Assessment of Fungal Growth in Buildings
Threshold Limit Values
ACGIH’s Classifications of TLVs and BEIs
Calculating a TWA
Hazard Recognition and Evaluation
Prevention and Control
Engineering Controls
Personal Protection from Hazards (PPE and Eyewash Stations)
Administrative Controls
Additional Strategies
Self-Protection Strategies
NIOSH and Industrial Hygiene
NIOSH Guidelines for Respirators
Air Safety Program Elements
Standards and Regulations
OSHA Chemical Process Standard
Environmental Protection Agency Risk Management Program
Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
General Safety Precautions
Nanoscale Materials and Industrial Hygiene
Confined Space Hazards
OSHA Confined Space Standard
OSHA Confined Space Standard (29 CFR 1910.146)
Confined Space Defined
Permit Space Defined
Exemptions to Entry by Permit Only
Written-Program Requirements
Informing Contract Employees
Entry Permits
Cancellation of Entry Permits
Training
Assigned Duties: Authorized Entrant
Assigned Duties: Attendant
Assigned Duties: Entry Supervisor
Emergencies: Rescue Service Personnel
Emergencies: Harnesses and Retrieval Lines
Safety Data Sheets
OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard
Written Hazard Communication Program
Employee Right-to-Know
GHS and OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-One Radiation Hazards
Learning Objectives
Ionizing Radiation: Terms and Concepts
Exposure of Employees to Radiation
Precautions and Personal Monitoring
Caution Signs and Labels
Evacuation Warning Signal
Instructing and Informing Personnel
Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Material
Notification of Incidents
Reports and Records of Overexposure
Notice to Employees
Nonionizing Radiation
Electromagnetic Fields in the Workplace
EMFs and Health Problems
An Appropriate Response for Safety Professionals
Cancellation Approach
Shielding Approach
OSHA’s Standards for Health and Environmental Controls
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-Two Noise and Vibration Hazards
Learning Objectives
Hearing Loss Prevention Terms
Characteristics of Sound
Hazard Levels and Risks
Standards and Regulations
ANSI Standard
OSHA Regulations
Hearing Hazards Monitoring
Engineering and Administrative Controls
Audiometric Evaluation
Personal Hearing Protection Devices
Education and Motivation
Record Keeping
Program Evaluation
Workers’ Compensation and Noise Hazards
Identifying and Assessing Hazardous Noise Conditions
Noise Surveys
Audiometric Testing
Record Keeping
Follow-Up
Noise Control Strategies
Engineering Controls
Administrative Controls
Hearing Protection Devices
Fit Testing of HPDs
Vibration Hazards
Injury-Prevention Strategies
Purchase Low-Vibration Tools
Limit Employee Exposure
Change Employee Work Habits
Other Injury-Prevention Strategies
Other Effects of Noise Hazards
Corporate Policy
Evaluating Hearing Loss Prevention Programs
Training and Education
Supervisor Involvement
Noise Measurement
Engineering and Administrative Controls
Monitoring Audiometry and Record Keeping
Referrals
Hearing Protection Devices
Administration
Future of Hearing Conservation: Noise Reduction Rating
Old and New Rating Methods Compared
Using NRR in Making Protected dBA Calculations and in Evaluating HPDs
Distraction Hazards Introduced by Handheld Devices with Earbuds
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-Three Computers, Automation, and Robots
Learning Objectives
Impact of Automation on the Workplace
Are Risk Factors Being Changed by Automation?
VDTs in Offices and Factories
Emergence of Optical Technologies and Handheld Devices
OSHA Assistance for Evaluating VDT Workstations
Human–Robot Interaction
Safety and Health Problems Associated with Robots
Minimizing the Safety and Health Problems of Robots
Industrial Medicine and Robots
Automated Vehicles in the Workplace
Minimizing the Safety Problems of Automation
Safety Measures for Automated Systems
Challenge for the Future
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-Four Bloodborne Pathogens and Bacterial Hazards in the Workplace
Learning Objectives
Symptoms of AIDS
How AIDS Is Transmitted
How AIDS Is Not Transmitted
AIDS in the Workplace
Employee Rights
Testing
Education
Legal Concerns
Testing Issue
Facts about Testing for AIDS and Other Diseases
AIDS Education
Planning an AIDS Education Program
Counseling Infected Employees
Employee Assistance Programs
Easing Employees’ Fears About AIDS
Protecting Employees from AIDS
CPR and AIDS
Safety Needles
Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus in the Workplace
Hepatitis B Virus
HBV Vaccination
Hepatitis C Virus
OSHA’s Standard on Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens
Scope of Application
Exposure Control Plan
Administration
Methodology
Vaccinations
Postexposure Investigation and Follow-Up
Labels and Signs
Information and Training
Record Keeping
Preventing and Responding to Needlestick Injuries
Responding to Needlestick Incidents
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in the Workplace
Prevention Steps
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Part Five Management of Safety and Health
Chapter Twenty-Five Preparing for Emergencies, Disasters, and Terrorism
Learning Objectives
Rationale for Emergency Preparation
Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act
Emergency Planning
Emergency Notification
Information Requirements
Toxic Chemical Release Reporting
Organization and Coordination
Osha Standards
First Aid in Emergencies
First-Aid Training Program
Beyond Training
How to Plan for Emergencies
Planning for Workers with Disabilities
Involving Key Personnel
Implementing Shelter-in-Place Plans
Evaluating Personnel Needs
Distributing and Communicating the Plan
Balancing Employer Responsibilities and Employee Right to Self-Determination
Working with First Responders
Implementing an Elevator Policy
Developing Emergency Notification Strategies
Practicing and Maintaining the EAP
Evacuation Planning
Marking of Exit Routes
Communication and Alarm Procedures
Outside Assembly
Training
Customizing Plans to Meet Local Needs
Emergency Response
Computers and Emergency Response
Dealing with the Psychological Trauma of Emergencies
Dealing with Emergency-Related Trauma
Trauma Response Team
Convincing Companies to Respond
Recovering from Disasters
Recovery Coordinator
Recovery Team
Recovery Analysis and Planning
Damage Assessment and Salvage Operations
Recovery Communications
Employee Support and Assistance
Terrorism in the Workplace
Role of the Employer
Securing Hazardous Materials
Reporting Suspicious People and Behaviors
Active Shooter Response
Resuming Business After a Disaster
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-Six Ethics and Safety
Learning Objectives
An Ethical Dilemma
Ethics Defined
Guidelines for Determining Ethical Behavior
Ethical Behavior in Organizations
Safety and Health Professionals’ Role in Ethics
Best-Ratio Approach
Black-and-White Approach
Full-Potential Approach
Company’s Role in Ethics
Creating an Ethical Environment
Setting an Ethical Example
Professional Codes of Conduct and Ethics
Handling of Ethical Dilemmas
Apply the Guidelines
Select the Approach
Proceed with the Decision
Questions to Ask When Making Decisions
Ethics and Whistle-Blowing
Problems with Whistle-Blowing
OSHA and Whistle-Blowing
Corporate Protections for Whistle-Blowers
Noncovered Whistle-Blowing
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-Seven Hazard Analysis/ Prevention and Safety Management
Learning Objectives
Overview of Hazard Analysis
Preliminary Hazard Analysis
Cost-Benefit Factors in Hazard Analysis
Detailed Hazard Analysis
Failure Mode and Effects of Analysis
Hazard and Operability Review
Human Error Analysis
Technique of Operations Review
Fault Tree Analysis
Risk Analysis
Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA)
Hazard Prevention and Deterrence
Osha’s Process Safety Standard
OSHA’s Regulation for Chemical Spills
Risk Assessment
Safety Management Concerns
Strategic Planning
Safety Policy
Written Procedures
Employee Training
Communication
Human Resource Management
Self-Assessments
Safety and Health Promotion
Accident Investigation and Reporting
Ongoing Monitoring
Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-Eight Promoting Safety
Learning Objectives
Company Safety Policy
Promoting Safety by Example
Safety Rules and Regulations
Sample Safety Rules
Employee Participation in Promoting Safety
Safety Training
Suggestion Programs
Visual Awareness
Sign Shapes and Colors
Safety Committees
Safety Committee Meetings
Do’s and Don’ts of Safety Committees
Do These
Don’t Do These
Personal Commitment to Workplace Safety
Employee-Management cooperation
Participative Culture Promotes Safety
Incentives
OSHA’s Stand on Safety Incentives
Competition
Teamwork Approach to Promoting Safety
Characteristics of Effective Teams
Supportive Environment
Team Player Skills
Role Clarity
Clear Direction
Team-Oriented Rewards
Accountability
Potential Benefits of Teamwork in Promoting Safety
Potential Problems with Teams
Responsibilities of Team Members
Role of the Team in Promoting Safety
Persuasion as a Promotional Tool
Projective Communication for Persuasion
Receptive Communication for Persuasion
Promoting off-the-Job Safety
Costs of Off-the-Job Injuries and Deaths
Off-the-Job Training Programs
Organizational Culture and Safety
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Twenty-Nine Environmental Safety
Learning Objectives
Safety, Health, and the Environment
Legislation and Regulation
OSHA–EPA Partnership
Clean Air Act
Economics of Environmental Regulation
Types of Environments
Role of Safety and Health Professionals
Hazards of the Environment
Indoor Environmental Quality
Action Plan for Ensuring IEQ
Hazardous Waste Reduction
OSHA Hazardous Waste Standard
Organizing a Waste Reduction Program
Form the Waste Reduction Team
Develop a Comprehensive Plan
Implement, Monitor, and Adjust
Waste Reduction Audit
Target the Processes
Analyze the Processes
Identify Reduction Alternatives
Consider the Cost-Benefit Ratio for Each Alternative
Select the Best Option
Environmental Management System (EMS)
Rationale for the EMS Movement
Potential Benefits of an EMS
Sustainability and Environmental Management
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO 14000
ISO 14001 Standard
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Thirty TSM: Total Safety Management in a Quality Management Setting
Learning Objectives
What is QM?
How Does QM Relate to Safety?
Safety Management in a QM Setting
What is TSM?
TSM Defined
Translating TSM into Action
TSM Steering Committee
Improvement Project Teams
TSM Facilitator
Fundamental Elements of TSM
Strategic Basis
Performance Oriented
Executive Commitment
Teamwork Oriented
Employee Empowerment and Enlistment
Scientific Decision Making
Continual Improvement
Comprehensive, Ongoing Training
Unity of Purpose
Rationale for TSM
Implementing TSM: The Model
Lean/Six Sigma and Safety: A Warning
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Endnotes
Chapter Thirty-One Establishing a Safety- First Corporate Culture
Learning Objectives
Safety-First Corporate Culture Defined
Importance of Having a Safety-First Corporate Culture
Globalization of Competition and Safety
Safety as a Cultural Imperative
How Corporate Cultures are Created
What a Safety-First Corporate Culture Looks Like
Ten Steps for Establishing a Safety-First Corporate Culture
Understand the Need for a Safety-First Corporate Culture
Assess the Current Corporate Culture as It Relates to Safety and Health
Plan for a Safety-First Corporate Culture
Expect Appropriate Safety-Related Behaviors and Attitudes
Model the Desired Safety-Related Behaviors and Attitudes
Orient Personnel to the Desired Safety-Related Behaviors and Attitudes
Mentor Personnel in the Desired Safety-Related Behaviors and Attitudes
Train Personnel in the Desired Safety-Related Behaviors and Attitudes
Monitor and Evaluate Safety-Related Behaviors and Attitudes at All Levels
Reinforce and Maintain the Safety-First Corporate Culture
Hiring Employees Who “Fit” Into a Safety-First Corporate Culture
Tragic Results of Corporate Cultures That Ignored Safety
Summary
Key Terms and Concepts
Review Questions
Glossary
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Z
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Test Bank for Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists Engineers and Managers 9th Edition by David L. Goetsch