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Test bank for Nutritional Sciences 3rd Edition by Michelle McGuire
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Test bank for Nutritional Sciences 3rd Edition by Michelle McGuire

Test bank for Nutritional Sciences 3rd Edition by Michelle McGuire

Crystal Clear Science + Compelling Applications = A Balanced Program for Teaching and Learning Now updated with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES: FROM FUNDAMENTALS TO FOOD, 3rd Enhanced Edition clearly explains the scientific principles underlying nutrition while incorporating applications to promote a complete understanding of core concepts. This integrated approach provides a strong science foundation in a context relevant to students’ daily lives and their careers. Supported by an impressive visual design, engaging case studies and interactive digital resources, NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES offers a unique, balanced program for teaching and learning. A Table of Food Composition booklet is included.

Title Page
Copyright
Contents In Brief
Contents
List Of Focus On Boxes
Everybody Has A Story: Michelle “Shelley” Mcguire
Preface
Acknowledgments
Half Title Page
Chapter 1: The Science of Nutrition
Everybody Has A Story: Choosing Nutrition As A Career Path
What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”?
Nutrients Support All We Do
Foods Contain Nutrients And Nonnutrients
Organic Nutrients Are Different From Organic Foods
Focus On Food: Understanding What Is Meant By “Organic Foods”
Phytochemicals, Zoonutrients, And Functional Foods
What Are the Major Nutrient Classes?
Carbohydrates Are Vital For Energy And Regulatory Roles
Proteins Make Up Muscles And Are Important For Energy And Regulation
Lipids Are More Than Abundant Energy Sources
Water Is The Essence Of Life Itself
Vitamins Regulate Reactions And Promote Growth And Development
Minerals Provide Structure And Assist With Regulation
How Do Foods Provide Energy?
Energy In Food Is Measured In Units Called Calories
How Is Nutrition Research Conducted?
Step 1: The Observation Must Be Accurate
Step 2: A Hypothesis Makes Sense Of An Observation
Step 3: Data Are Collected To Test The Hypothesis
Intervention Studies Test For Causality
Are All Nutrition Claims Believable?
Determine The Source Of The Information
Credibility Of The Researchers Is Important
Who Paid For The Research?
Evaluate The Experimental Design
Do Public Health Organizations Concur?
Nutrition and Health: What Is the Connection?
Public Health Agencies Assess The Health Of The Nation
Mortality And Morbidity Rates Measure Death And Illness Over Time
Life Expectancy Has Increased Dramatically
Diseases Are Either Infectious Or Noninfectious
Chronic Diseases Are The Leading Causes Of Death
Risk Factors Do Not Necessarily Cause Chronic Diseases
Understanding Nutrition Is More Important Than Ever
Focus On Diet And Health Industrialization, Population Growth, And The Nutritiontransition
Chapter 2: Nutritional Assessment and Dietary Planning
Everybody Has A Story Nutrient Deficiencies—Primary Or Secondary?
What Do We Mean by “Nutritional Status”?
Primary And Secondary Malnutrition Can Lead To Poor Nutritional Status
Adequate Nutrient Intake Can Be Different Among Individuals
How Is Nutritional Status Assessed?
Anthropometry: Body Measurements Provide Information Concerning Nutritional Status
Laboratory Tests Are Important Biochemical Indicators Of Nutritional Status
Clinical Evaluations Assess Signs And Symptoms Of Disease
Analysis Of Your Diet Can Also Be Helpful
Food Composition Tables And Dietary Analysis Software Are Important Tools
How Much of a Nutrient Is Adequate?
Dietary Reference Intakes (Dris) Provide Reference Standards
Dri Values Depend On Many Factors
Estimated Average Requirements (Ears) Reflect A Population’s Average Need
Recommended Dietary Allowances (Rdas) Are Recommended Intake Goals For Individuals
Adequate Intake (Ai) Levels Were Set When Data Were Lacking For Ears
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (Uls) Reflect Safe Maximal Intakes
Energy Intake Can Also Be Evaluated
How Can You Easily Assess and Plan Your Diet?
Food Guidance Systems Have Been Part Of Dietary Planning For Decades
2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Our Current Recommendations
2015 Dietary Guidelines For Americans
Food Matters: Working Toward The Goal: Maximizing Nutrient Intake By Increasing Fruit And Vegetable
Healthy Eating Patterns, And Food Groups
Myplate Lllustrates How To Put Recommendations Into Practice
Focus On Diet And Health: Are Legumes Protein Foods Or Vegetables?
Healthy People 2020 Outlines Our Nation’s Goals For Healthy Living
How Can You Use Food Labels to Plan a Healthy Diet?
Understanding Nutrition Facts Panels
Focus On Food: What Makes A Food Kosher?
Focus On Food: The Buy Fresh Buy Local Campaign
Nutrient Content Claims, Structure/Function Claims, And Health Claims
Can You Put These Conceptsinto Action?
Step 1: Set The Stage And Set Your Goals
Step 2: Assess Your Nutritional Status
Step 3: Set The Table To Meet Your Goals
Step 4: Compare Your Plan With Your Assessment: Did You Succeed?
There Is No Time Like The Present
Chapter 3: Chemical, Biological, and Physiological Aspects of Nutrition
Everybody Has A Story: Living With Crohn’s Disease
How Does Chemistry Apply to the Study of Nutrition?
Atoms Are Fundamental Units Of Matter That Make Up The World Around Us
Chemical Bonds Enable Atoms To Form Millions Of Different Molecules
Complex Molecules Are Vital To Cell Function
Acid–Base Chemistry Is Important To The Study Of Nutrition
How Do Biological Molecules Form Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems?
Substances Cross Cell Membranes By Passive And Active Transport
Cell Organelles Carry Out Specialized Functions Critical For Life
Groups Of Cells Make Up Tissues, Tissues Make Up Organs, And Organs Make Up Organ Systems
How Does the Digestive System Break Down Food into Absorbable Components?
The Gi Tract Has Four Tissue Layers That Contributet O The Process Of Digestion
How Do Gastrointestinal Motility and Secretions Facilitate Digestion?
Gastrointestinal (Gi) Motility Mixes And Propels Food In The Gi Tract
Gastrointestinal (Gi) Secretions Aid Digestion And Protect The Gi Tract
Neural And Hormonal Signals Regulate Gastrointestinal Motility And Secretions
How Does the Gastrointestinal Tract CoordinateFunctions to Optimize Digestionand Nutrient Absorption
Digestion Begins In The Mouth With Chewing And Mixing Food
The Esophagus Delivers Food To The Stomach
Functions Of The Stomach Include Storage, Release Of Gastric Secretions, And Mixing
Focus On Clinical Applications: Peptic Ulcers And Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
The Small Intestine Is The Primary Site Of Chemical Digestion And Nutrient Absorption
How Does the Body Circulate Nutrientsand Eliminate Cellular Waste Products?
Nutrients Absorbed From The Small Intestine Are Circulated To The Liver
The Cardiovascular System Circulates Nutrients, Oxygen, And Other Substances
Focus On Clinical Applications: Celiac Disease
The Lymphatic System Transports Fat-Soluble Nutrients Away From The Gi Tract
The Kidneys Play An Important Role In Excreting Cellular Waste Products
What Is the Role of the Large Intestine?
The Large Intestine Aids In The Elimination Of Solid Waste Products
Focus On Clinical Applications: Cranberry Juice And Urinary Tract Infections
Fluids And Electrolytes Are Absorbed And Reabsorbed In The Large Intestine
Microbial Action In The Large Intestine Breaks Down Undigested Food Residue
Focus On Clinical Applications Irritable Bowel Syndrome And Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The Large Intestine Stores And Eliminates Solid Waste Products From The Body
Focus On Clinical Applications: Probiotic And Prebiotic Foods
Chapter 4: Carbohydrates
Everybody Has A Story: What It Takes To Stay In The Race
What Are Simple Carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides Are Single Sugar Molecules
Focus On Diet And Heal: THIs High-Fructose Corn Syrup Contributing to the Obesity Epidemic?
Disaccharides Consist Of Two Monosaccharides
What Are Complex Carbohydrates?
Oligosaccharides Are Components Of Cell Membranes
Focus On Food: Are Nonsugar Sweeteners Beneficial to Health?
Polysaccharides Differ In The Types And Arrangements Of Sugar Molecules
How Are Carbohydrates Digested, Absorbed, and Circulated in the Body?
Starch Digestion Begins In The Mouth
Disaccharides Are Digested In The Small Intestine
Monosaccharides Are Readily Absorbed From The Small Intestine
Monosaccharides Have Several Functions In The Body
How Do Hormones Regulate Blood Glucoseand Energy Storage?
The Hormones Insulin And Glucagon Are Produced By The Pancreas
Insulin Lowers Blood Glucose And Promotes Energy Storage
Glucagon Helps Increase Blood Glucose
Fight-Or-Flight Response Provides An Immediate Energy Source
Ketones Are The Body’s Alternative Energy Source
How Much Carbohydrate Do We Require?
Dietary Reference Intakes For Carbohydrates
Making The Right Food Choices
Food Matters: Working Toward the Goal: Focus on Reducing Added Sugars
Nutrition Matters: Nutrition and Diabetes
What Is Diabetes?
The Discovery Of Insulin
Diabetes Is Classified By Its Underlying Cause
What Is Type 1Diabetes?
Type 1 Diabetes Is Caused By A Lack Of Insulin Production
Metabolic Disturbances Result From Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes Requires Insulin Injections Or a Pump
What Is Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 Diabetes Is Caused By Insulin Resistance
Genetic And Lifestyle Factors Increase The Risk Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes
Signs And Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes Are Often Ignored
Managing Type 2 Diabetes Can Help Prevent Long-Term Complications
Lifestyle Practices Can Influence Risk Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes
What Are Secondary Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes?
Focus On The Process Of Science: The Story of the Pima Indians
Some Pregnant Women Develop Gestational Diabetes
Managing Diabetes Today Can Help Prevent Health Problems Tomorrow
Chapter 5: Protein
Everybody Has A Story: Living with Peanut Allergy
What Are Proteins?
Amino Acids Are The Building Blocks Of Proteins
Amino Acids Are Classified As Essential, Nonessential, Or Conditionally Essential
Are All Food Proteins Equal?
Complete And Incomplete Proteins
Protein Complementation
Protein Quality
How Are Proteins Made?
Focus On Food: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Protein Quality
Step 1: Cell Signaling Initiates Protein Synthesis
Step 2: Transcription Transfers Genetic Information To Mrna
Step 3: Translation Produces A New Peptide Chain
How Do Proteins Get Their Shapes?
Primary Structure Dictates A Protein’s Basic Identity
Secondary Structure Folds And Twists A Peptide Chain
Tertiary Structure Adds Complexity
Focus On Clinical Applications: Sickle Cell Anemia
Some Proteins Have Quaternary Structure And Prosthetic Groups
Denaturing Agents Alter A Protein’s Shape And Function
Genetics, Epigenetics, Nutrition, and Nutrigenomics
Genetic Alterations: Mutations And Polymorphisms
Experts Believe That Nutrition May Be Related To Epigenetics
The Human Genome Project Has Opened The Door To Nutrigenomics
Focus On The Process Of Science: Personalized Nutrition Based On Genetic Makeup
How Are Dietary Proteins Digested,Absorbed,and Circulated?
Protein Digestion Begins In The Stomach
Protein Digestion Continues In The Small Intestine
Amino Acids Are Absorbed In The Small Intestine And Circulated In The Blood
What Are the Major Functions of Proteins and Amino Acids in the Body?
Proteins Provide Structure
Enzymes Are Proteins That Catalyze Chemical Reactions
Muscle Proteins Facilitate Movement
Some Proteins Provide A Transport Service
Hormones And Cell-Signaling Proteins Are Critical Communicators
Proteins Protect The Body
Fluid Balance Is Regulated In Part By Proteins
Proteins Help Regulate Ph
Proteins Are Sources Of Glucose And Energy (Atp)
Amino Acids Serve Many Additional Purposes
Protein Turnover, Urea Excretion, and NitrogenBalance
Protein Turnover Helps Maintain An Adequate Supply Of Amino Acids
Nitrogen Is Excreted As Urea
What Is Nitrogen Balance?
How Much Protein Do You Need?
Dietary Reference Intakes (Dris) For Amino Acids
Dietary Reference Intakes (Dris) For Proteins
Experts Debate Whether Athletes Need More Protein
Additional Recommendations For Protein Intake
Focus On Sports Nutrition: Do Protein and Amino Acid SupplementsEnhance Athletic Performance?
Food Matters: Working Toward the Goal: ObtainingSufficient Protein While Minimizing Fats
Vegetarian Diets: Healthier Than Other Dietary Patterns?
There Are Several Forms Of Vegetarianism
Vegetarian Diets Sometimes Require Thoughtful Choices
What Are the Consequences of Protein Deficiency?
Protein Deficiency Is Most Common In Early Life
Protein Deficiency In Adults
Protein Excess: Is There Cause for Concern?
High Red Meat Consumption May Be Related To Increased Risk For Cancer
Nutrition Matters: Food Safety
What Causes Foodborne Illness?
Foodborne Illnesses Are Caused By Infectious And Noninfectious Agents
Different Strains Of a Microorganism Are Called Serotypes
Some Organisms Make Toxins Before We Eat Them
Some Organisms Make Enteric (Intestinal) Toxins After We Eat Them
Some Organisms Invade Intestinal Cells
Protozoa And Worms Are Types Of Parasites
Prions Are Inert, Nonliving Proteins That May Be Infectious
How Can Noninfectious Substances Cause Foodborne Illness?
Algae Toxins Can Make Some Fish And Shellfish Poisonous
Some Pesticides, Herbicides, Antibiotics, And Hormones Are Dangerous
Food Allergies And Sensitivities Can Also Cause Foodborne Illness
New Food Safety Concerns Are Always Emerging
How Do Food Manufacturers Prevent Contamination?
Careful Food-Handling Techniques Help Keep Food Safe
Proper Food Production, Preservation, And Packaging Can Prevent Illness
What Steps Can You Taketo Reduce Foodborne Illness?
Check Consumer Advisory Bulletinsv
The Fightbac!® Campaign Provides Basic Food Safety Advice
Be Especially Careful When Eating Out
What About Avoiding Foodborne Illness While Traveling or Camping?
Drink Only Purified Or Treated Water
Avoid Or Carefully Wash Fresh Fruit And Vegetables
Traveling In Areas With Variant Creutzfelt-Jakob Disease
What Are Some Emerging Issues of Food Biosecurity?
Chapter 6: Lipids
Everybody Has A Story: Gallbladder Surgery—When Things Do Not Go Smoothly
What Are Lipids?
Fats And Oils Are Types Of Lipids
Fatty Acids Are The Most Common Type Of Lipid
Fatty Acids Are Named For Their Structures
Focus On Diet And Health: Trans Fat–Free Zones
Which Fatty Acids Do We Need, and Where Do They Come From?
There Are Two Essential Fatty Acids: Linoleic Acid And Linolenic Acid
Some Fatty Acids Are Conditionally Essential
Dietary Sources Of Different Types Of Fatty Acids
Focus On Life Cycle Nutrition: Optimal Lipid Nutrition During Infancy
Mono-, Di-, and Triglycerides: What’s the Difference?
Triglycerides Play Many Roles In The Body
What Are Phospholipids and Sterols?
Phospholipids Are Considered “Amphipathic”
Phospholipids Are Critical For Cell Membranes And Lipid Transport
Sterols And Sterol Esters Are Lipids With Ring Structures
How Are Dietary Lipids Digested?
Digestion Of Triglycerides Requires Bile And Lipases
Focus On Clinical Applications: Gallbladder Disease And Gallstones
Digestion Of Phospholipids And Cholesteryl Esters Also Requires Pancreatic Enzymes
How Are Dietary Lipids Absorbed and Circulated in the Body?
Dietary Lipids Are Absorbed In The Small Intestine
Dietary Lipids Are Circulated Away From The Small Intestine In Two Ways
What Is the Role of Other Lipoproteins in Lipid Transport and Delivery?
Lipoproteins Contain Lipids In Their Cores
What Is the Relationship between Lipid Intake and Health?
Excess Lipid Intake Can Lead To Obesity
Dietary Lipids May Be Related To Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease
Focus On Food: The Skinny on Fat Substitutes
The Relationship Between Dietary Lipids And Cancer Is Unclear
What Are the Dietary Recommendations for Lipids?
Consume Adequate Amounts Of The Essential Fatty Acids
Pay Special Attention To The Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Dietary Guidelines And Institute Of Medicine Recommend Limiting Saturated Fatty Acids
Food Matters: Working Toward the Goal: Getting the Right Lipids in Your Diet
Trans Fatty Acids And Maybe Cholesterol Should Be Minimized
Guidelines Set For Total Lipid Consumption
Nutrition Matters: Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health
How Does Cardiovascular Disease Develop?
Atherosclerosis Can Lead To Cardiovascular Disease
Heart Disease Is A Type Of Cardiovascular Disease
Stroke Is Another Form Of Cardiovascular Disease
What Are the Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease?
Nonmodifiable Risk Factors
Modifiable Risk Factors
How Does Nutrition Influence Cardiovascular Risk?
Hypertension Can Be Partially Controlled With Diet
Controlling Blood Lipid Levels With Diet
Other Dietary Factors And Patterns Are Associated With Lower Risk
Heart-Healthy Dietary Patterns
What Are the General Nutrition Guidelines for Healthy Hearts?
Be Mindful Of Energy Intake And Macronutrient Balance
Vitamins And Minerals Also Matter
Chapter 7: Energy Metabolism
Everybody Has A Story: The Importance Of Newborn Screening
What Is Energy Metabolism?
Metabolic Pathways Consist Of Linked Chemical Reactions
Metabolic Pathways Can Be Catabolic Or Anabolic
Chemical Reactions Require Enzymes
Energy Metabolism Is Regulated By Changes In Atp Levels
What Is the Role of ATP in Energy Metabolism?
High-Energy Bonds Enable Atp To Store And Release Energy
Atp Is Synthesized By Substrate Phosphorylation And By Oxidative Phosphorylation
How Do Catabolic Pathways Release Stored Energy?
Catabolic Pathways Metabolize Glucose For Energy
Catabolic Pathways Can Metabolize Protein For Energy
Triglycerides Are An Important Source Of Energy
How Do Anabolic Pathways Contribute to Energy Metabolism?
Glycogenesis Generates Glycogen From Glucose
Lipogenesis Forms Fatty Acids And Triglycerides
Gluconeogenesis Forms Glucose From Noncarbohydrate Sources
Ketogenesis Plays An Important Role During Times Of Limited Glucose Availability
Focus On Diet And Health: Can Ketogenic Diets Help Control Epilepsy?
How Is Energy Metabolism Influenced by Feeding and Fasting?
The Fed State Favors Energy Storage
Cells Rely On Stored Energy During The Postabsorptive State
Energy Stores Decline During The Fasting State
Focus On Diet And Heal: Thchronic Caloric Restriction And Longevity
The Body Conserves Energy Stores During The State Of Prolonged Starvation
Versatile Solutions Help The Body Meet Its Energy Needs
Focus On The Process Of Science: Keys Starvation Experiment
Nutrition Matters: Alcohol, Health, And Disease
What Is Alcohol and How Is It Absorbed?
Alcohol Is Produced By Fermentation
Several Factors Influence The Rate Of Alcohol Absorption
Alcohol Circulates And Accumulates In The Blood
Alcohol Affects The Central Nervous System
How Is Alcohol Metabolized?
The Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Adh) Pathway Metabolizes The Majority Of Alcohol
The Microsomal Ethanol-Oxidizingsystem (Meos) Can Also Metabolize Alcohol
Alcohol Metabolism Can Damage The Liver
Alcohol Affects Vitamin A Metabolism In The Liver
What Are the Health Benefits Associated with Moderate Alcohol Consumption?
Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Related To Lower Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease
Moderate Alcohol Consumption May Provide Other Health Benefits
Why Does Heavy Alcohol Consumption Pose Serious Health Risks?
Excessive Alcohol Intake Can Impair Nutritional Status
Long-Term Alcohol Abuse Can Lead To Liver Disease
Long-Term Alcohol Abuse Increases Cancer Risk
Alcohol Abuse Can Harm The Cardiovascular System
Alcohol Abuse Can Impair Pancreatic Function
How Does Alcohol Abuse Contribute to Individual and Societal Problems?
Alcohol Use On College Campuses
Recommendations Forr Esponsible Alcohol Use
Chapter 8: Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation
Everybody Has A Story: The Decision to Have Gastric Bypass Surgery
What Is Energy Balance?
Energy Balance Affects Body Weight
What Determines Energy Intake?
Hunger And Satiety Are Physiological Influences On Energy Intake
Focus On Clinical Applications: Bariatric Surgery
Appetite Also Affects Energy Intake
Focus On Food: Food Cravings and Food Aversions
What Determines Energy Expenditure?
Basal Metabolism Accounts For Most Of Tee
Physical Activity Is The Second-Largest Component Of Tee
Thermic Effect Of Food (Tef) Is A Minor Component Of Tee
Methods Of Assessing Total Energy Expenditure (Tee)
Direct And Indirect Calorimetry Used To Estimate Tee
Stable Isotopes Can Be Used To Estimate Tee
Tee Can Be Estimated Usingmathe Matical Formulas
How Are Body Weight and Body Composition Assessed?
Being Overweight Means Having Excess Weight; Being Obese Means Having Excess Fat
Tables Are A Guide To Assessing Body Weight
Clinicians Use Several Techniques To Assess Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution Affects Health
How Does Lifestyle Contribute to Obesity?
Eating Habits Can Contribute To Obesity
Sedentary Lifestyles Contribute To Weight Gain
Can Genetics Influence Body Weight?
Identical Twin Studies Help Scientists Understand Role Of Genetics
Discovery Of The “Obesity Genes” Provides First Genetic Model Of Obesity
How Does the Body Regulate Energy Balance and Body Weight?
Adjusting Energy Intake And Energy Expenditure Maintains Energy Balance
Leptin Communicates The Body’s Energy Reserve To The Brain
Adiponectin May Provide A Link Between Obesity And Weight-Related Diseases
What Are the Best Approaches to Weight Loss?
Healthy Food Choices Promote Overall Health
Food Matters: Working Toward the Goal: Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight by Balancing Caloric Intake
Characteristics Of People Who Successfully Lose Weight
Focus On Food: Eating More and Weighing Less
Does Macronutrient Distribution Matter?
High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Weight-Loss Diets
Low-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diets
Nutrition Matters: Disordered Eating
How Do Eating Disorders Differ from Disordered Eating?
People With Anorexia Nervosa Pursue Excessive Thinness
People With Bulimia Nervosa Binge And Purge
Most Eating Disorders Are Classified As “Not Otherwise Specified”
Are There Other Disordered Eating Behaviors?
Some Food-Related Disturbances Involve Nocturnal Eating
Food Neophobia: Avoidance Of Trying New Foods
Muscle Dysmorphia: Preoccupation With Muscularity
What Causes Eating Disorders?
Sociocultural Factors
Family Dynamics
Personality Traits And Emotional Factors Can Trigger Eating Disorders
Biological And Genetic Factors May Also Play A Role In Eating Disorders
Are Athletes at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders?
Athletics May Foster Eating Disorders In Some People
The Female Athlete Triad
How Can Eating Disorders Be Prevented and Treated?
Prevention Programs Must Promote A Healthy Body Image
Treatment Strategies Must Focus On Psychological Issues
Chapter 9: Physical Activity and Health
Everybody Has A Story: Turning a Spark into an Inferno
What Are the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?
Physical Activity Improves Health And Physical Fitness
Components Of Physical Fitness
Acsm Exercise Recommendations For Healthy Adults
How Does Physical Activity Impact Energy Metabolism?
Atp Can Be Generated By Aerobic And Anaerobic Pathways
Focus On Sports Nutrition: Do Creatine Supplements Enhance Athletic Performance?
What Physiologic Adaptations Occur in Response to Athletic Training?
Both Strength And Endurance Training Improve Athletic Performance
Some Athletes Use “Performance-Enhancing” Aids
How Does Physical Activity Influence DietaryRequirements?
Energy Requirements To Support Physical Activity
Focus On Sports Nutrition: Carbohydrate Loading and Athletic Performance
Recommendations For Macronutrient Intake Are Similar For Physically Active And Sedentary Individuals
An Adequate Diet Is Likely To Satisfy Micronutrient Requirements
Exercise Increases The Need For Fluid And Electrolytes
Nutrition Plays An Important Role In Post-Exercise Recovery
Chapter 10: Water-Soluble Vitamins
Everybody Has A Story: “I’m Sorry, But Your Baby Has a Neural Tube Defect”
The Water-Soluble Vitamins: A Primer
Water-Soluble Vitamins Tend To Have Similar Properties
Water-Soluble Vitamins Function In Diverse Ways
Some Vitamins Have Several Names
Some Foods Are “Enriched” Or “Fortified” With Micronutrients
Water-Soluble Vitamins Can Be Destroyed By Cooking And Improper Storage
Thiamin (Vitamin B1)—Needed for Productionof Acetyl Coenzyme A
Whole Grains, Pork, And Fish Are Rich In Thiamin
Food Matters Working Toward The Goal: Consuming Whole-Grain Foods To Optimize Your Intake Of Water-S
“Antithiamin Factors” Decrease Thiamin Bioavailability
Thiamin Is Critical For Atp Production
Thiamin Deficiency Results In Beriberi
Recommended Intakes Of Thiamin
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)—Coenzyme Requiredfor Reduction–Oxidation Reactions
Meats And Dairy Products Are Rich Sources Of Riboflavin
Riboflavin Assists In Reduction–Oxidation (Redox) Reactions
Riboflavin Deficiency Causes Ariboflavinosis
Recommended Intakes Of Riboflavin
Niacin (Vitamin B3)—Required for EnergyMetabolism
Meat And Mushrooms Are Good Sources Of Niacin
Niacin Is Involved In Reduction–Oxidation (Redox) Reactions
Niacin Deficiency Results In Pellagra
Recommended Intakes Of Niacin
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)—A Componentof Coenzyme A
Pantothenic Acid Is Found In Most Plant And Animal Foods
Pantothenic Acid Is Needed For Glycolysis And The Citric Acid Cycle
Recommended Intakes For Pantothenic Acid
Vitamin B6—Critical for Metabolism of Amino Acids
Chickpeas, Tuna, And Liver Are Rich In Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 Is Needed For Making Nonessential Amino Acids
Vitamin B6 Deficiency Causes Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia
Too Much Vitamin B6 Can Be Toxic
Recommended Intakes Of Vitamin B6
Biotin (Vitamin B7)—Coenzyme for Carboxylation Reactions
Nuts, Mushrooms, And Eggs Are Rich In Biotin
Biotin Adds Bicarbonate (Hco-(sub_3)) Subunits In Carboxylation Reactions
Recommended Intakes For Biotin
Folate—Required for Methylation Reactions
Green Leafy Vegetables Are Rich Sources Of Folate
Folate Facilitates Single-Carbon Transfers
Folate Deficiency Causes Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anemia
Recommended Intakes Of Folate
Vitamin B(sub_12) (Cobalamin)—Vitamin Made Only by Microorganisms
Microorganisms Produce Vitamin B(sub_12)
Vitamin B12 Is Involved In Atp And Methionine Production
Vitamin B(sub_12) Deficiency Causes Pernicious Anemia
Recommended Intakes For Vitamin B(sub_12)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)—Critical Antioxidant
Many Fruits And Vegetables Are Rich Sources Of Vitamin C
Vitamin C Is A Potent Antioxidant
Vitamin C Is Important For Immune Function
Vitamin C Deficiency Causes Scurvy
Recommended Intakes For Vitamin C
Is Choline a “New” Conditionally EssentialNutrient?
Eggs Are Rich Sources Of Dietary Choline
Choline Deficiency Is Rare
Carnitine—Needed for Fatty Acid Transport
Carnitine Carries Fatty Acids Across Membranes
Summary of the Water-Soluble Vitamins and Use of Supplements
Dietary Supplements Can Contain Many Substances
Chapter 11: Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Everybody Has A Story: Living Successfully with Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia
What Makes the Fat-Soluble Vitamins Unique?
Each Fat-Soluble Vitamin Has Several Names
Vitamin A and the Carotenoids—Needed for Eyesight and Much More
Vitamin A And Provitamin A Carotenoids Are Found In Diverse Plant And Animal Foods
Absorption Of Vitamin A And The Carotenoids Requires Adequate Lipids
Vitamin A Is Critical For Vision, Growth, And Reproduction
Nonprovitamin A Carotenoids Are Potent Antioxidants
Vitamin A Deficiency Causes Vitamin A Deficiency Disorder (Vadd)
Vitamin A Toxicity Causes Hypervitaminosis A
Recommended Intakes For Vitamin a And The Carotenoids
Focus On Diet And Health: Vitamin A and International Child Health
Vitamin D—The “Sunshine Vitamin”
Vitamin D Is Found Naturally In Only A Few Foods
Vitamin D Is Also Made In The Skin
Dietary Vitamin D Absorption And Vitamin D Activation
Vitamin D Regulates Calcium Homeostasis, Gene Expression, And Cell Differentiation
Vitamin D Deficiency May Be Relatively Common
Focus On Diet And Health: Vitamin D—Needed For More Than Just Healthy Bones
Recommended Intakes And Vitamin D Toxicity
Vitamin E—Antioxidant That Protects Biological Membranes
Vitamin E Is Abundant In Oils, Nuts, And Seeds
Vitamin E Is A Potent Antioxidant
Vitamin E Deficiency Causes Hemolytic Anemia
Recommended Intakes For Vitamin E
Vitamin K—Critical for Coagulation
Vitamin K Is Found Naturally In Dark Greens, Fish, And Legumes
Vitamin K Involved In Blood Clotting Cascade
Vitamin K Deficiency Can Cause Severe Bleeding
Focus On Clinical Applications: Nutrient–Drug Interactions and Vitamin K
Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Summary and OverallRecommendations
Food Matters: Working Toward the Goal: Increasing Fat-Soluble Vitamin Intake via Fruits and Vegetabl
Nutrition Matters: Nutrition and Cancer
How Does Cancer Develop?
Cancer Develops In a Multistep Manner
How Is Cancer Detected and Treated?
Routine Cancer Screening Is Recommended
There Are Many Treatment Options For Cancer
Cancer And Its Treatments Can Influence Nutritional Status
What Other Factors Are Related to Risk of Cancer?
Biological Factors Are Related To Cancer Risk
Lifestyle And Environmental Factors Impact Cancer Risk
Can Optimal Nutrition Help Prevent Cancer?
Recommendation #1: Maintain A Healthy Body Weight
Recommendation #2: Be Physically Active
Recommendation #3: Limit Consumption Of Energy-Dense Foods And Sweetened Beverages
Recommendation #4: Eat Mostly Foods Of Plant Origin
Recommendation #5: Limit Intake Of Red Meat And Processed Meat
Recommendation #6: Limit Alcohol
Recommendation #7: Limit Salt And Avoid Moldy Grains And Legumes
Recommendation #8: Choose Foods Over Supplements
Special Recommendation #1: Women Should Breastfeed Their Infants
Special Recommendation #2: Cancer Survivors Should Follow The Same Recommendations
Diet and Cancer: What Is in the Future?
Chapter 12: The Major Minerals and Water
Everybody Has A Story: JoAnn’s Challenge with Bone Health
What Are Minerals?
Common Characteristics Of Major Minerals
Calcium—The Body’s Most Abundant Mineral
Dietary And Supplemental Sources Of Calcium
Food Matters: Working Toward the Goal: Increasing Calcium and Potassium Intakes by Consuming Low-Fat
Calcium Homeostasis Is Complex
Calcium Is Needed For More Than Bones And Teeth
Focus On Food: Milk Consumption and Chronic Disease Prevention
Calcium And Bone Health
Calcium Deficiency Also Affects Nerve And Muscle Function
Calcium Toxicity Can Cause Kidney Stones And Calcification Of Soft Tissues
Recommended Intakes For Calcium
Phosphorus—A Component of Biological Membranes
Phosphorus Is Abundant In Protein-Rich Foods
Regulation Of Blood Phosphorus Levels Is Similar To That Of Calcium
Additional Roles For Phosphorus
Phosphorus Deficiency Is Rare; Toxicity Causes Mineralization Of Soft Tissues
Magnesium—Needed for Building Bonesand Stabilizing Enzymes
Beans, Nuts, And Seeds Are Excellent Sources Of Magnesium
Blood Levels Of Magnesium Are Regulated By The Small Intestine And Kidneys
Magnesium Is Important For Bones And To Stabilize Anions
Magnesium Deficiency And Toxicity Are Rare
Recommended Intakes For Magnesium
Sodium and Chloride—Regulators of Fluid Balance
Sodium And Chloride Contents Of Foods Are Readily Available
Sodium Absorption Requires Glucose
Blood Sodium Levels Are Carefully Regulated
Sodium And Chloride Are Electrolytes
Sodium And Chloride Deficiencies Can Occur During Illness And Physical Exertion
Overconsumption Of Sodium Chloride Increases Blood Pressure In Some People
Recommended Intakes For Sodium And Chloride
Potassium—An Important IntracellularCation
Potassium Is Found In A Variety Of Fruits, Vegetables, Dairy Products, And Meat
Potassium Is The Body’s Major Intracellular Cation
Potassium Deficiency And Toxicity
Water—The Essence of Life
Distribution Of Water In The Body
Fluid (Water) Balance Is Shifted By Movement Of Electrolytes
Water Is Essential For Life
Water Insufficiency Causes Dehydration
Focus On Clinical Applications: Electrolytes, Fluid Balance, and Cystic Fibrosis
Recommendations For Water Intake
How Are the Functions and Food Sources of the Major Minerals Related?
Focus On Diet And Health: Coffee, Caffeine, and Health
Nutrition Matters: Nutrition and Bone Health
Do Bones Continue to Develop and Grow Throughout Life?
Bone Tissue Is Complex And Living
Bones Are Made Of Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
What Causes Osteoporosis?
There Are Two Types Of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis Can Seriously Affect Health And Well-Being
Biological And Lifestyle Factors Increase Risk For Osteoporosis
Are You at Risk?
For Most People, Screening Should Begin At Age 65–70 Years
Osteoporosis Can Be Treated With Medications
Optimal Nutrition Is Critical For Bone Health
Chapter 13: The Trace Minerals
Everybody Has A Story: Living Life as an “Iron Man”
What Do the Trace Minerals Have in Common?
Regulation Of Trace Minerals In The Body
Trace Minerals Act As Cofactors And Prosthetic Groups And Provide Structure
Iron—Transporter of Oxygen
Iron Is In Both Plant- And Animal-Derived Foods
Many Factors Influence Iron Bioavailability
Iron Absorption Is Tightly Regulated
Iron Is A Component Of Heme And Nonheme Proteins
Iron Deficiency Causes Anemia And Much More
Iron Toxicity Can Be Fatal
Recommended Intakes For Iron
Copper—Cofactor in Redox Reactions
Organ Meats Are Excellent Sources Of Copper
Excess Copper Is Eliminated In Bile
Food Matters: Working Toward the Goal: Increasing Trace Mineral Intake via Nuts and Seeds
Copper Is Involved In Reduction–Oxidation (Redox) Reactions
Copper Deficiency And Toxicity Are Rare
Iodine (Iodide)—An Essential Component of the Thyroid Hormones
Marine Foods Supply Iodine Naturally
Focus On The Process Of Science: Iodine Deficiency and Iodination of Salt
Goitrogens Inhibit Iodine Utilization
Iodine Is A Component Of Thyroid Hormones
Iodine Deficiency Causes Cretinism And Goiter
Recommended Intakes For Iodine
Selenium—A Mineral with Antioxidant Functions
Nuts, Seafood, And Meats Are Rich In Selenium
Selenium Is Incorporated Into Selenoproteins
Selenium Is An Important Antioxidant
Selenium Deficiency And Toxicity: Keshan Disease And Selenosis
Chromium—Implicated in Glucose Homeostasis
Chromium Content Of Foods Depends On Chromium Content Of Soil
Chromium May Be Involved In Glucose Homeostasis
Chromium Deficiency And Toxicity Are Rare
Recommended Intakes For Chromium
Manganese—Important for Gluconeogenesis and Bone Formation
Plant Foods Are The Best Sources Of Manganese
Severe Manganese Deficiency Causes Weak Bones And Slow Growth
Molybdenum—Required in Very Small Quantities
Legumes, Nuts, And Grains Provide Molybdenum
Molybdenum Deficiency Is Exceedingly Rare
Zinc—Involved in RNA Synthesis and Gene Expression
Zinc Is Found In Shellfish, Organ Meats, And Dairy Foods
Zinc Absorption Is Regulated Similarly To Iron
Zinc Is Involved In Rna Synthesis And Gene Expression
Vegetarians May Need Additional Zinc
Fluoride—Nonessential Mineral That Strengthens Bones and Teeth
Many Communities Fluoridate Their Water
Fluoride Strengthens Bones And Teeth
Fluoride Toxicity Results In Fluorosis
Are There Other Important Trace Minerals?
Integration of Functions and Food Sources
Chapter 14: Life Cycle Nutrition
Everybody Has A Story: Backyard Harvest
What Physiological Changes Take Place during the Human Life Cycle?
Growth And Development Take Place At Various Times During The Life Cycle
Nutrient Requirements Can Change For Each Stage Of The Life Cycle
What Are the Major Stages of Prenatal Development?
Prenatal Development Is Divided Into Embryonic And Fetal Periods
Gestational Age Is Important To Assess
Focus On The Process Of Science: Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
What Are the Recommendations for a Healthy Pregnancy?
Recommended Weight Gain Depends On Bmi
Maternal Nutrient And Energy Requirements Change During Pregnancy
Maternal Smoking Is Harmful To The Fetus
Staying Healthy During Pregnancy
Pregnancy-Related Health Concerns
Food Matters: Working Toward The Goal: Selecting Foods During Pregnancy
Why Is Breastfeeding Recommended during Infancy?
Lactation Is The Process Of Milk Production
Milk Production Is A Matter Of Supply And Demand
Human Milk Is Beneficial For Babies
Lactation Influences Maternal Energy And Nutrient Requirements
Breastfeeding Is Beneficial For Mothers
What Are the Nutritional Needs of Infants?
Infant Growth Is Assessed Using Growth Charts
Developmental Stages Provide The Basis For Recommended Infant Feeding Practices
Nutrient Supplementation Recommendations Are Based On Whether The Infant Is Breastfed Or Formula Fed
Complementary Foods Can Be Introduced Between 4 And 6 Months Of Age
What Are the Nutritional Needs of Toddlers and Young Children?
Growth And Development Influence Nutritiona Lneeds Of Toddlers And Young Children
Feeding Behaviors In Children
Focus On Diet And Health: Overweight Children: A Growing Concern
Recommended Energy And Nutrient Intakes For Toddlers And Young Children
Dietary Guidelines For Toddlers And Young Children
How Do Nutritional Requirements Change during Adolescence?
Growth And Development During Adolescence
Nutritional Concerns And Recommendations During Adolescence
How Do Age-Related Changes in Adults Influence Nutrient and Energy Requirements?
Adulthood Is Characterized By Physical Maturity
There Are Many Theories As To Why We Age
Nutritional Issues Of Adults
Focus On Clinical Applications: Dietary Options for Perimenopausal and Menopausal Women
Assessing Nutritional Risk In Older Adults
Nutrition Matters: Food Security, Hunger, and Malnutrition
What Is Food Security?
People Respond To Food Insecurity In Different Ways
Poverty Is The Underlying Factor Associated With Food Insecurity
What Are the Consequences of Food Insecurity?
Many Organizations Provide Food-Based Assistance In The United States
What Causes Worldwide Hunger and Malnutrition?
Many Factors Contribute To Global Food Insecurity
Global Food Insecurity Results In Malnutrition
International Organizations Provide Food-Based Assistance To The Global Community
What Are Potential Solutions for Global Food Insecurity and Malnutrition?
Alleviating Food Insecurity And Malnutrition
Taking Action Against Hunger Can Make A Difference
Appendixes
Appendix A: Aids to Calculation
Appendix B: Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) Calculations and Physical Activity Values (PA)
Appendix C: Summary of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Appendix D: The Exchange System
Appendix E: Answers to Study Card Review Questions
Glossary
Index
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