Test bank for Nutrition Science and Applications 4th Edition by Lori A. Smolin



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Test bank for Nutrition Science and Applications 4th Edition by Lori A. Smolin
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Test bank for Nutrition Science and Applications 4th Edition by Lori A. Smolin

Test bank for Nutrition Science and Applications 4th Edition by Lori A. Smolin

Nutrition: Science and Applications, 4th Edition helps students develop the scientific understanding to support their personal and professional decisions. Using a critical thinking approach, Smolin brings nutrition out of the classroom and allows students to apply the logic of science to their own nutrition concerns – both as consumers and as future scientists and health professionals.

1 Nutrition: Food for Health 1

Case Study 2

Nutrition, Food Choices, and the American Diet 2

Food Provides Nutrients 6

Nutrition and Health 11

The Science Behind Nutrition 17

Evaluating Nutrition Information 24

Case Study Outcome 28

Summary 29

2 Nutrition Guidelines: Applying the Science of Nutrition 30

Case Study 31

The Development of Nutrition Recommendations 31

Dietary Reference Intakes 34

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015–2020 37

MyPlate: Putting the Dietary Guidelines into Practice 42

Food and Supplement Labels 48

Other Nutrition Guidelines 57

Assessing Nutritional Health 59

Case Study Outcome 66

Summary 67

3 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism 68

Case Study 69

Food Becomes Us 69

The Digestive System 71

Digestion and Absorption 74

The Gastrointestinal Tract and Health 83

Delivering Nutrients to Body Cells 95

Metabolism of Nutrients: An Overview 99

Elimination of Metabolic Wastes 101

Case Study Outcome 103

Summary 103

Types of Carbohydrates 109

Carbohydrates in the Digestive Tract 114

Carbohydrates in the Body 118

Carbohydrates and Health 123

Meeting Recommendations for Carbohydrate Intake 133

Case Study Outcome 144

Summary 144

5 Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Cholesterol 146

Case Study 147

Fats in Our Food 147

Types of Lipids 149

Lipids in the Digestive Tract 156

Lipid Transport in the Body 157

Lipids and Health 165

Meeting Recommendations for Fat Intake 174

Case Study Outcome 183

Summary 183

Focus on Alcohol 186

What’s in Alcoholic Beverages? 187

Alcohol Absorption and Excretion 188

Alcohol Metabolism 189

Adverse Effects of Alcohol Consumption 191

Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Consumption 196

6 Proteins and Amino Acids 198

Case Study 199

Protein in Our Food 199

Protein Molecules 201

Protein in the Digestive Tract 203

Amino Acid Functions in the Body 205

Functions of Body Proteins 211

Protein, Amino Acids, and Health 214

Meeting Recommendations for Protein Intake 220

Vegetarian Diets 228

Case Study Outcome 232

Summary 233

7 Energy Balance and Weight Management 235

Case Study 236

Body Weight and Health 236

Guidelines for a Healthy Body Weight 241

Exploring Energy Balance 246

Estimating Energy Requirements 255

What Determines Body Size and Shape? 259

Approaches to Weight Loss 270

Case Study Outcome 279

Summary 279

Focus on Eating Disorders 281

What Are Eating Disorders? 282

What Causes Eating Disorders? 283

Anorexia Nervosa 286

Bulimia Nervosa 288

Binge-Eating Disorder 290

Eating Disorders in Special Groups 292

Preventing and Getting Treatment for Eating Disorders 297

8 The Water-Soluble Vitamins 299

Case Study 300

What Are Vitamins? 301

Thiamin 308

Riboflavin 311

Niacin 313

Biotin 317

Pantothenic Acid 318

Vitamin B6 319

Folate (Folic Acid) 324

Vitamin B12 329

Vitamin C 333

Choline and Other Vitamin-Like Compounds 338

Case Study Outcome 340

Summary 341

9 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins 343

Case Study 344

Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Our Diet 344

Vitamin A Sources and Functions 345

Vitamin D 355

Vitamin E 361

Vitamin K 364

Case Study Outcome 371

Summary 372

Focus on Phytochemicals 374

Phytochemicals in Our Food 375

How to Choose a Phytochemical-Rich Diet 379

10 Water and the Electrolytes 382

Case Study 383

Water: The Internal Sea 383

Water Balance 38

Electrolytes: Salts of the Internal Sea 393

Hypertension 398

Healthy Electrolyte Intakes 402

Case Study Outcome 407

Summary 408

11 Major Minerals and Bone Health 409

Case Study 410

What Are Minerals? 410

Minerals, Osteoporosis, and Bone Health 414

Calcium (Ca) 423

Phosphorus (P) 430

Magnesium (Mg) 432

Sulfur (S) 434

Case Study Outcome 435

Summary 436

12 The Trace Minerals 438

Case Study 439

Trace Minerals in Our Diet 439

Iron (Fe) Sources and Functions 440

Meeting Iron Needs 444

Zinc (Zn) 450

Copper (Cu) 454

Manganese (Mn) 456

Selenium (Se) 457

Iodine (I) 461

Chromium (Cr) 465

Fluoride (F) 466

Molybdenum (Mo) 471

Other Trace Elements 471

Case Study Outcome 472

Summary 472

Focus on Dietary Supplements 474

What Is a Dietary Supplement? 475

Nutrient Supplements 478

Substances Made in the Body 479

Phytochemical Supplements 482

Herbal Supplements 483

13 Nutrition and Physical Activity 487

Case Study 488

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health 488

Physical Activity Recommendations 493

Exercise and Energy Metabolism 498

Energy and Nutrient Needs for Physical Activity 505

Fluid Needs for Physical Activity 512

Food and Drink to Maximize Performance 517

Ergogenic Aids: Do Supplements Enhance Athletic Performance? 520

Case Study Outcome 528

Summary 529

14 Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation 531

Case Study 532

The Physiology of Pregnancy 531

The Nutritional Needs of Pregnancy 540

Factors That Increase the Risks of Pregnancy 547

Lactation 554

The Nutritional Needs of Infancy 558

Feeding the Newborn 563

Case Study Outcome 569

Summary 569

15 Nutrition from Infancy to Adolescence 571

Case Study 572

Starting Right for a Healthy Life 572

Nourishing Infants, Toddlers, and Children 575

Nutrition and Health Concerns in Infants and Children 584

Adolescents 591

Special Concerns of Teenagers 595

Case Study Outcome 599

Summary 599

16 Nutrition and Aging: The Adult Years 601

Case Study 602

What Is Aging? 602

What Causes Aging? 604

Aging and the Risk of Malnutrition 606

Nutritional Needs and Concerns of Older Adults 614

Keeping Older Adults Healthy 618

Case Study Outcome 626

Summary 627

17 Food Safety 628

Case Study 629

How Can Food Make Us Sick? 629

Keeping Food Safe 631

Pathogens in Food 636

How to Reduce the Risk of Microbial Food-Borne Illness 644

Agricultural and Industrial Chemicals in Food 648

Technology for Keeping Food Safe 654

Case Study Outcome 663

Summary 663

Focus on Biotechnology 665

How Does Biotechnology Work? 666

Applications of Modern Biotechnology 671

Safety and Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods 675

18 World Hunger and Malnutrition 679

Case Study 680

The Two Faces of Malnutrition 680

Causes of Hunger and Undernutrition 684

Eliminating World Hunger 691

Hunger at Home 697

Case Study Outcome 702

Summary 703

Appendix A A-1

Appendix B B-1

Appendix C C-1

Appendix D D-1

Appendix E E-1

Appendix F F-1

Appendix G G-1

Appendix H H-1

Appendix I I-1

Appendix J J-1

Appendix K K-1

Glossary GL-1

References R-1

Index I-1

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Test bank for Nutrition Science and Applications 4th Edition by Lori A. Smolin