Test Bank for Nutrition Health and Safety for Young Children Promoting Wellness 3rd Edition by Joanne Sorte



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Test Bank for Nutrition Health and Safety for Young Children Promoting Wellness 3rd Edition by Joanne Sorte
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Test Bank for Nutrition Health and Safety for Young Children Promoting Wellness 3rd Edition by Joanne Sorte

Test Bank for Nutrition Health and Safety for Young Children Promoting Wellness 3rd Edition by Joanne Sorte

Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText. To order the Enhanced Pearson eText packaged with a bound book, use ISBN 0134403215.    This practical, comprehensive text helps students understand the interrelationships among nutrition, health, and safety, and gives them strategies to share their knowledge with children and their families. Covering the full range of childhood from birth into school age, it includes concrete, common in-text examples, case scenarios, and questions that promote thinking about professional situations students will face in their own classrooms and teaching situations, while providing a glimpse into the everyday contemporary classroom environment. The new edition features a stronger focus on wellness that prepares students to teach the diverse populations of young children in family child care, child care centers, preschools, and elementary settings by providing everything needed to ensure students understand wellness concepts, know how to apply wellness concepts, and know how to teach wellness concepts to children. More accessible, relevant, and useful to students than ever, Nutrition, Health and Safety for Young Children gives early childhood teachers what they need to help all children attain wellness and be ready for success in school. The Enhanced Pearson eText features embedded videos and assessments.   Improve mastery and retention with the Enhanced Pearson eText* The Enhanced Pearson eText provides a rich, interactive learning environment designed to improve student mastery of content. The Enhanced Pearson eText is: Engaging. The new interactive, multimedia learning features were developed by the authors and other subject-matter experts to deepen and enrich the learning experience. Convenient. Enjoy instant online access from your computer or download the Pearson eText App to read on or offline on your iPad® and Android® tablet.* Affordable. The Enhanced Pearson eText may be purchased stand-alone or with a loose-leaf version of the text for 40-65% less than a print bound book. *The Enhanced eText features are only available in the Pearson eText format. They are not available in third-party eTexts or downloads. *The Pearson eText App is available on Google Play and in the App Store. It requires Android OS 3.1-4, a 7” or 10” tablet, or iPad iOS 5.0 or later.


Nutrition, Health, and Safety for Young Children Promoting Wellness
About the Authors
New to This Edition
Scope and Purpose of This Book
Helps Students to Understand Wellness Concepts
Helps Students to See Wellness Concepts … and Apply Them
Helps Students Teach Wellness Concepts to Children
Brief Contents
Special Features
Part 1 Promoting Wellness
Chapter 1 Your Role in Children’s Wellness
Learning Outcomes
Building the Foundations for Children’s Wellness
Understanding the Interrelationships Between Nutrition, Health, and Safety
Recognizing Trends That Affect Nutrition Services
The Obesity Epidemic
Redefining Children’s Diets
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Feeding Children
Understanding Current Issues That Impact Children’s Health
Indicators of Well-Being
Health Insurance
Access to a Usual Medical Provider
Oral Health
Childhood Immunizations
Disparities in Health Care
Children’s Mental Health
Inclusion of Children with Significant Health Concerns
Identifying Emergent Issues in Child Safety
Security Management
Regulatory Guidelines
Emergency Management Planning
Promoting Wellness Through National Initiatives
Healthy People 2020
The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010
National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health
Healthy Child Care America
National Health and Safety Performance Standards for Child Care
Education Programs that Interface with Health and Wellness Initiatives
Factors that Influence Children’s Wellness
Considering the Contexts in Which Children Grow and Develop
Understanding the Overarching Challenges to Children’s Wellness
Multicultural Classrooms
Diverse Family Structures
Housing and Homelessness
Environmental Health and Safety
Food Insecurity
Advocating for Children’s Wellness
Teaching Children Wellness Concepts
Understanding How Children Learn
Early Brain Development
Constructing Knowledge
Exploring in the Developmental Domains
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social-Emotional Development
Inspiring a Positive Approach to Learning
Planning with Purpose
Using Evidence-Based Practices
Engaging in Developmentally Appropriate Practices
Toddlers and Preschoolers
Early Elementary-Age Children
Employing a Variety of Teaching Strategies
Including Culturally Relevant Approaches
Designing a Wellness Curriculum
Identifying Developmentally Appropriate Wellness Messages
Reviewing Activities for Safety
Drafting Activity Lesson Plans
Including All Children: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Accessing Supports for Teachers
Children’s Literature
Curriculum Books and Internet Resources
Professional Development Training
Partnering with Families and the Community
Collaborating in Curriculum Development
Partnering with Families
Engaging with Community Resources
Convening an Advisory Committee
Reinforcing Wellness Concepts at Home and School
Communicating About Wellness Goals
Sharing Community Health Information
Providing Guidance When Needed
Being Healthful Role Models
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Part 2 Promoting Good Nutrition
Chapter 2 The Foundations of Optimal Nutrition
Learning Outcomes
Understanding How Nutrition Affects Children
Identifying Optimal Nutrition
Collaborating with Families
Recognizing Challenges to Nutrition
Disappearing Family Meals
Using Convenience Foods
Eating Away from Home
Struggling with Food Affordability
Identifying New Wellness Opportunities
Growing Interest in Sustainable Food Practices
Increasing Interest in Wellness in the School Environment
Understanding Malnutrition
Recognizing Undernutrition
Insufficient Calorie Intake
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Vitamin D and Health
Addressing Undernutrition
Recognizing Overnutrition
Identifying Obesity in Children
The Health Consequences of Obesity
The Psychosocial Impact of Obesity
The Role of Inadequate Physical Activity
Food Insecurity and Obesity
Addressing Obesity
Using Recommended Standards to Guide Healthy Eating
Understanding Dietary Reference Intakes
Classification of Nutrients
Components of the Dietary Reference Intakes
Evaluating Daily Values and Reading Food Labels
Food Label Requirements
Reading Labels for Food Allergens
Special Labeling for Infant/Toddler Foods
Using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010
Using the Choose MyPlate Food Guidance System
Ethnic Food Guidance Systems
Providing Bilingual Educational Materials
Teaching English Language Learners
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 3 The Science of Nutrition
Learning Outcomes
Defining Nutrition Science
Understanding the Process of Digestion
The Digestion Process
The Mouth
Textures of Foods
Protecting Teeth
Swallowing and the Esophagus
Swallowing Difficulties
The Stomach
Understanding the Process of Absorption
The Small Intestine
The Large Intestine
Understanding Problems Related to Absorption
Understanding Malabsorption
Lactose Intolerance
Diet-Related Diarrheas
Understanding Constipation
Aiding Digestion and Absorption
The Function of Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats
Understanding Energy
Nutrient Composition of Foods
Releasing or Storing Energy
Determining Energy Needs
Conflicting Role of Sugar in the Diets of Young Children
Complex Carbohydrates
Insoluble Fiber
Soluble Fiber
Defining the Function of Proteins
Understanding Amino
Essential, Nonessential, and Conditionally Essential Amino Acids
The Quality of Protein
Defining Protein Requirements
Types of Dietary Fat
Dietary Fats and Health
Implications of Dietary Fats in Children’s Diets
Summary of the Role of Macronutrients
The Function of Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Important Vitamins and Minerals for Children
The Teamwork of B Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium
Iron and Vitamin C
Implementing Nutrition Science
Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Children
Promoting Personal Health
Understanding Cultural Food Choices
Teaching Nutrition Concepts
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 4 Feeding Infants
Learning Outcomes
The Balance of Nurture and Nutrients
Feeding Infants: The First 6 Months
The Breast-Fed Infant
Benefits of Breast Milk
Nutritional Benefits
Immunological and Other Health Benefits
Cognitive and Emotional Benefits
Other Benefits to Breastfeeding
Rates of Breastfeeding
Cultural Influences on Breastfeeding Practices
Supporting Breastfeeding Mothers
Safe Handling of Breast Milk
Breast Milk Composition
Nutrients to Consider in Breastfed Infants
Vitamin D
Vitamin B12
The Formula-Fed Infant
Types of Infant Formula
Modified Cow’s Milk–Based Formulas
Soy-Based Formulas
Hypoallergenic Formulas
Other Formulas
Formula Intolerance
Forms of Infant Formula
Safe Preparation of Infant Formula
Understanding the Feeding Relationship
On-Demand Feeding
Feeding Cues
Signs of Hunger and Satiety
Feeding Infants from a Bottle
Communicating with Parents
How Often and How Much to Feed a Baby
Inappropriate Infant Feeding Practices
Adding Cereal to the Bottle
Finishing the Bottle
Using Honey in the Bottle or on the Pacifier
Offering Alternative Milks
Feeding the Infant: 6 Months to the First Birthday
Introducing Complementary Foods
Linking Developmental Skills to Feedings
Understanding What to Feed Infants
Avoid Introducing Fruit Juice Early
Home-Prepared Baby Food
Understanding How to Feed Solids to Infants
Feeding the Older Infant
Offering Finger Foods
Reducing the Risk of Choking
Introducing Foods That Are Low in Nutritional Quality
Infants Learning About Food and Eating
Feeding Infants with Special Health Care Needs
Infants with Feeding Problems
Feeding Premature Infants
Feeding Infants with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
Feeding Infants from Different Cultures
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 5 Feeding Toddlers, Preschoolers, and School-Age Children
Learning Outcomes
Feeding Toddlers
Division of Responsibility in Feeding
Understanding the Nutritional Needs of Toddlers
Balancing Toddler Diets
Understanding Portion Sizes for Toddlers
Recognizing Characteristics of Toddlers’ Diets
Modifying Food Textures and Consistency
Timing of Meals
Understanding Impacts of Development
Decrease in Growth Rate
The Need for “Sameness”
Changing Taste Perceptions
Understanding Challenges in Feeding Toddlers
Selective Eaters
Food Neophobia
Food Jags
Weaning from the Bottle
Switching to Whole Milk
Exploring Cultural Differences in Feeding Toddlers
Understanding the Teacher’s Role in Promoting Healthful Eating Habits
Setting the Mealtime Environment
Family-Style Service
Linking Developmental Skills to Feeding Skills
Teachers as Role Models
Teaching Toddlers About Nutrition
Feeding Preschoolers
Understanding the Nutritional Needs of Preschool Children
Recognizing Characteristics of Preschool Children’s Diets
Food Textures and Consistencies
Scheduling Meals and Snacks
Avoiding Portion Distortion
Understanding the Teacher’s Role in Creating a Positive Mealtime Experience
Arranging the Mealtime Environment
Establishing Comfortable Routines
Considering Cultural Traditions
Encouraging Conversation
Supporting Children’s Internal Cues of Hunger and Fullness
Being a Good Role Model
Teaching Preschoolers About Nutrition
Learning About the Origins of Food
Field Trips
School Gardens
Classroom Cooking Activities
Activities That Support Nutrition Education
Feeding School-Age Children
Understanding the Nutritional Needs of School-Age Children
Recognizing Characteristics of School-Age Children’s Diets
Timing of Meals
The Importance of Breakfast
School Breakfast Program
Impact of Breakfast on Learning
Providing School Lunch
National School Lunch Program
School Lunch: Before or After Recess?
Understanding the Teacher’s Role in Creating a Quality Nutrition Environment
School Wellness Policy
Children with Special Needs
Children from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds
The Cafeteria as a Learning Lab
Understanding the Teacher’s Role in Promoting Healthful Eating Habits
Communicating with Families
Teachers as Advocates
Helping Families Access Nutrition Services
Teaching School-Age Children About Nutrition
Teaching Basic Nutrition Concepts
Using an Integrated Nutrition Curriculum
Teaching About Sustainable Nutrition
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 6 Menu Planning
Learning Outcomes
Healthful Menu Planning
Phase 1: Understanding Requirements for Menu Planning
Identifying the Teacher’s Role
Understanding Menu Planning Resources
Federally Funded Food and Nutrition Programs with Menu Planning Systems
The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
Eligibility for Participation
Benefits of CACFP
CACFP Program Requirements
CACFP Creditable Foods
The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP)
Head Start/Early Head Start Programs
USDA Schools/Child Nutrition Commodity Program
Organizing Resources
Resources and Strategies to Promote Healthful Eating Habits Through Menu Planning
Offering Children More Fruits and Vegetables
Enticing Children to Eat More Fruits and Vegetables
Menu Planning Strategies to Include More Fruits and Vegetables
Select Nutrient Dense Foods That Are Rich in Dietary Fiber
Choose Foods Naturally Low in Sodium
Menu Planning Strategies to Include Nutrient Dense Foods
Limiting Solid Fats and Extra Fats When Planning Menus
Creating Menus That Support Sustainability
Using Locally Grown Produce
Recycling and Composting
Planting School Gardens
Partnering with Children and Families as Resources for Menu Planning
Phase 2: Writing Menus
Step 1: Gather Tools for Menu Planning
Step 2: Prepare to Write the Cycle Menu
Step 3: Create a Budget for Menus
Determining Income Sources for Menu Implementation
Using Cost Control Strategies
Step 4: Build the Menu
Selecting the Breakfast Menu
Selecting the Lunch Menu
Fruits and Vegetables
Selecting Snacks for the Menu
Transitioning to New or Updated Menus
Step 5: Use Meal Service to Enhance Menu Acceptance
Supporting the Development of Eating Skills
Enhancing the Social Experience and Social Environment for Children
Selecting a Type of Meal Service
Step 6: Managing the Menu and Other Occasions When Food Is Brought from Home
Phase 3: Creating Menus that Support Alternative or Special Diets
Planning Menus for Children with Food Allergies
Understanding Food Allergies
Infants with Food Allergies
Toddlers, Preschoolers, and Primary-Grade Children with Food Allergies
Planning Menus for Children with Diabetes
Understanding Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Understanding the Diet for Type 1 Diabetes
Understanding the Diet for Type 2 Diabetes
Planning Menus for Children Who Are Overweight or Obese
Planning Menus for Children with Special Health Care Needs
Planning Menus for Children Following a Vegetarian Diet
Infants with Vegetarian Diets
Toddler, Preschool, and Primary-Grade Children with Vegetarian Diets
Planning Menus to Reflect Cultural Preferences
Planning Menus to Address Religious Beliefs and Practices
The Islamic Religion
The Jewish Religion
The Seventh Day Adventist Religion
Chapter Quiz 6
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 7 Food Safety
Learning Outcomes
Identifying Hazards That Cause Foodborne Illness
Recognizing Biological Hazards
Toxin-Mediated Infection
Recognizing Chemical Hazards
Recognizing Physical Hazards
Recognizing Food Allergens and Intolerances as a Special Type of Hazard
Understanding Food Safety Regulations and Guidelines
Federal, State, and County Roles in Food Safety Regulations
Impact of Food Safety Regulations
Minimizing Food Contamination in the Early Childhood Setting
Understanding HACCP Principles
Principle 1: Utilizing Hazard Analysis
Principle 2: Identify the Critical Control Points
Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits
Principle 4: Establish a Monitoring System
Principle 5: Establish a Corrective Action Plan
Principle 6: Establish Procedures for Verification
Principle 7: Maintain a System of Record Keeping
Understanding Standard Operating Procedures
Preventing Contamination At Each Stage of Food Handling
Minimizing Contamination Risk During Food Purchasing
Minimizing Contamination Risk When Receiving and Storing Food
Minimizing Contamination Risk During Food Preparation
Maintaining Personal Hygiene
Hand Washing
Wearing Appropriate Attire
Reporting Infectious Disease
Preventing Cross-Contamination
Methods of Sanitizing
Preparing and Using Bleach Solutions
Safe Food Production at Each Stage of Food Preparation
Thawing Food
Preparing Food
Cooling Food
Reheating Food
Minimizing Contamination Risk During Food Service
Understanding At-Risk Situations in Early Childhood Settings
Food Safety and the Feeding of Infants
Food Safety and the Feeding of Toddlers and Preschoolers
Food Safety and Children with Special Needs
Food Safety and Food Brought from Home
Food Safety and Cultural Considerations
Food Safety on Field Trips
Food Safety and Classroom Cooking Activities
The Emergency Plan and Food Defense
Developing an Emergency Food Plan
Planning for Food Defense
Teaching Food Safety to Children
Chapter Quiz 7
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
3 Promoting Healthful Practices
Chapter 8 Creating a Climate of Health and Wellness
Learning Outcomes
Health and Wellness in Early Childhood
Defining Health and Wellness
Components of Health
Physical Health
Mental Health
Determinants of Children’s Health
Social and Economic Environment
Physical Environment
Individual Characteristics and Behaviors
Influencing Health and Wellness in the Early Childhood Setting
Child Health Policies
Resources for Health Policy Development
National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education
Office of Head Start
National Association for the Education of Young Children
School Wellness Policies
Components of Health Policies
Ensuring That Policies Are Appropriate for the Setting
Policies Promoting Health and Wellness
Oral health promotion
Dental Care Services
Policies Promoting Physical Activity
Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations
Disparities in Quality of Health
Recognizing Stereotypes and Prejudice
Promoting Acceptance in the Classroom
Supporting Families Who Do Not Speak English
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 9 Health Screening and Assessment
Learning Outcomes
Evaluating Children’s Health and Development
Understanding Health Evaluations
Managing Health Information Appropriately
Defining the Health History
Early Development
Pregnancy and Birth History
Developmental History
History of Illness and Disease
Illnesses and Hospitalizations
Chronic Health Conditions
Medications and Treatments
Immunization Status
Immunization Requirements
Family Concerns About Immunizations
Potential Reactions Following Vaccination
Child Safety and Risk-Taking Behaviors
Nutritional History
Health Issues Related to Nutrition
Special Diets and Food Preferences
Oral Health History
Mental and Emotional Health History
Family Health and Wellness
Family Medical History
Home Environment
Family Dynamics
Obtaining Children’s Health History
Gathering Health History Information
Selecting Purposeful Questions
Gathering Information Before Children Attend
Building Comfortable Relationships
Documenting Information Accurately
Asking for Clarifying Information
Identifying Impacts on the Child’s Participation
Confirming Who May Access Health Information
Promoting Health and Wellness
Identifying Missing Information
Reviewing the Health History
Screening Immunization Reports
Exclusion Dates
Medical Exemptions
Religious Exemptions
Philosophical Exemptions
Ensuring That Children Have a Medical Home
Confirming That Children Have Well-Child Exams
Making Referrals
Conducting Health Evaluations
Growth Measurements
Height and Weight
Body Mass Index
Oral Health Assessments
Hearing and Vision Screenings
Hearing Screening
Vision Screening
Screening for Communication Disorders
Lead Screening
Developmental Screening and Assessment
Conducting Daily Health Checks
Ongoing Observation
Chapter Quiz 9
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 10 Managing Infectious Disease
Learning Outcomes
Understanding the Infectious Disease Process
The Causes of Infectious Diseases
How Disease Is Spread
Direct or Indirect Contact
Droplet Transmission
Airborne Transmission
Bloodborne Transmission
The Incubation Period
Symptoms of Disease
Symptoms of Common Infections
Acute Infectious Diarrhea
Respiratory Tract Illnesses
Skin Infections and Contagious Rashes
Preventing and Controlling Infectious Disease
Health Assessments for Teachers
Classroom Practices for Controlling the Spread of Disease
Hand Washing
When to Wash Hands
Supporting Children to Wash Their Own Hands
Conducting Daily Health Checks
Cleaning and Sanitizing
Diapering and Toileting
Using Standard Precautions
Teaching Children Preventive Health Practices
Partner with Families
Managing Challenges
Establish an Isolation Area
Record Illness Information
Be Prepared to Send Sick Children Home
Have Illness Notifications Available
Recognizing and Managing Infectious Disease
Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Haemophilus influenzae Type b
Chicken Pox
Influenza (The Flu)
Hepatitis A
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Other Common Communicable and Infectious Diseases of Childhood
Common Colds
Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)
Group A Strep Infections
Ear Infections
Fifth Disease
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Infections and Acute Illnesses Involving the Skin
Head Lice
Coxsackie Virus (Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease)
Bite Wounds
Staph Infections
Bloodborne Infections in the Early Childhood Setting
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Infectious Diseases in Immigrant and Internationally Adopted Children
Unknown Health History
Common Diseases Among Immigrant and Internationally Adopted Children
Viral Hepatitis
Intestinal Infections
HIV Infections
Skin Infections
Other Infectious Diseases
Culture and Management of Infectious Diseases
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 11 Teaching Children with Special Health Care Needs
Learning Outcomes
Understanding Children’s Special Health Care Needs
Defining Special Health Care Needs
Prevalence of Children with Special Health Care Needs
Functional Status
Impact on Families
Financial Issues
Educational Impact
Planning Inclusive Classrooms
Ensuring Access to Education
Supporting Appropriate Inclusion
Administering Medications
Partnering with Families
Educating Classmates
Managing Special Health Care Needs
Conditions Related to the Immune System
Dental Caries
Classroom Management Strategies
Classroom Management Strategies
Allergic Conditions
Skin Allergies
Conditions Related to the Nervous System
Classroom Management Strategies
Learning Disabilities
Classroom Management Strategies
Cerebral Palsy
Classroom Management Strategies
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Classroom Management Strategies
Intellectual Disability
Classroom Management Strategies
Lead Exposure and Poisoning
Classroom Management Strategies
Spina Bifida
Classroom Management Strategies
Conditions That Are Genetic
Cystic Fibrosis
Classroom Management Strategies
Sickle Cell Anemia
Classroom Management Strategies
Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
Classroom Management Strategies
Down Syndrome
Classroom Management Strategies
Muscular Dystrophy
Classroom Management Strategies
Seizure Disorders
Febrile Seizures
Classroom Management Strategies
Conditions Affecting Communication, Hearing, and Vision
Speech and Language Impairments
Speech Impairments
Language Impairments
Classroom Management Strategies
Hearing Impairment
Classroom Management Strategies
Vision Impairments
Classroom Management Strategies
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 12 Children’s Mental Health
Learning Outcomes
Understanding Mental Health
Defining Mental Health
Current Focus on Children’s Mental Health
Influences on Children’s Mental Health
Biological Factors
Environmental Factors
Characteristics of Healthy Social and Emotional Development
One to Two Years
Two to Three Years
Three to Four Years
Four to Five Years
Five to Eight Years
Promoting Social and Emotional Development
Contributing to Healthy Social Emotional Development
Building Healthy Relationships
Developing Self-Concept and Self-Efficacy
Developing Self-Regulation
Developing Resilience
Creating Supportive Environments
Establishing Caring Relationships
Nurturing Relationships
Building Attachment
Providing Appropriate Play
Understanding Mental Health Problems
Understanding prevalence of Mental Health Problems
Recognizing Consequences
Understanding Socioeconomic Factors
Using Teachers’ Observations
Observing for Positive Development
Observing for Atypical Development
Externalizing Behaviors
Internalizing Behaviors
Observing for Mental Health Problems That Impact Academics
Understanding Cultural Influences
Acknowledging the Role of Sleeping and Eating Habits
Using Community Resources
Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Behavioral Disorders of Childhood
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Conduct Disorder
Implications for Teachers
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Separation Anxiety
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Implications for Teachers
Mood Disorders
Implications for Teachers
Teachers’ Role in Children with Mental Health Disorders
Demonstrating Sensitivity
Understanding Successful Integration
Supports Needed from Families
Conducting a functional assessment
Mental Health Consultants in Early Childhood Programs
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
4 Promoting Safety
Chapter 13 Enhancing Safety Through Appropriate Environments
Learning Outcomes
Ensuring Physical and Emotional Safety
Understanding the Impact of Safety on Healthy Development
Attending to Physical Safety Needs
Supporting Emotional Safety Needs
Addressing Basic Needs
Creating the Classroom as Refuge for Children
Identifying Unintentional Injuries
Causes of Unintentional Injury
Defining Fatal Injuries
Incidence of Fatal Injuries
Causes of Fatal Injury
Understanding Risk Factors for Unintentional Injury and Death
Child Age
Child’s Developmental Maturity
Child’s Sex
Child’s Race/ethnicity
Child’s Individual Potential for Risk
Family Socioeconomic Status
Location of Child’s Residence
Acknowledging Risk for Injury in Early Childhood Settings
Implications for Teachers
Using Regulations to Improve Safety
Implementing Safety Regulations
The Role of the Regulatory Agency
Licensing Criteria
Understanding Common Licensing Requirements
Licensing Application and Fees
Facility Requirements
Program Design and Practices
Teacher Qualifications and Requirements at Hire
Children’s Health and Nutrition
Children’s Programming
Monitoring for Compliance
Conducting Site Visits
Investigating Complaints
Responding to Licensing Violations
Enforcing Consequences
Moving Beyond Minimum Standards
Program Accreditation
Increasing Quality in Other Ways
Exploring the Implications of Increasing Safety Regulations
Understanding Program Responsibilities
Providing Safe Facilities
Developing Safety Policies and Procedures
Hiring Safe Personnel
Providing Orientation
Monitoring for Compliance with Safety Rules
Building Collaborations with Others
Obtaining Insurance and Legal Counsel
Insurance for Accidental Injury and Death
Liability insurance
Legal Counsel
Clarifying Teacher Responsibilities
Making a Professional Commitment to Safety
Implementing Program Safety Practices
Modeling Safe Behaviors
Teaching Safety Skills
Supervising Children and Taking Action When Needed
Sharing Safety Messages with Families
Creating Safe and Appropriate facilities
Meeting the Need for Safe Spaces
Recognizing Challenges
Accessing Guidance for Facility Development
Designing Appropriate Spaces for Children
Demonstrating Value for Young Children
Maria Montessori
Reggio Emilia
Learning from Criticism
Envisioning Appropriate Environments
Providing Sufficient Space
Ensuring Accessibility
Creating Spaces That Are Culturally Relevant
Understanding Building Codes and Facility Requirements
Providing Appropriate Utility Services
Creating Safe Areas Around the Building
Providing Safe Entrances and Exits
Addressing Parking Lot Safety
Marking Emergency Exits
Offering Bicycle Parking
Creating Bus Lanes and Passenger Loading Areas
Marking Emergency Vehicle Parking Zones
Designating School Zones
Managing Security
Identifying Neighborhood Security Concerns and Resources
Understanding Family Concerns and Issues
Controlling Facility Access
Implications for Teachers
Establishing Safe Indoor Environments
Organizing the Classroom
Furnishing the Classroom
Choosing Child-Sized Furniture
Meeting the Needs of Each Age Group
Mobile Infants and Toddlers
Kindergarten and Elementary Children
Evaluating Furniture for Safety
Safely Storing Classroom Supplies
Organizing Materials
Securing Medications
Storing Cleaning Supplies
Avoiding Infestation of Insects and Rodents
Controlling for Hazards
Choosing Appropriate Plants for the Classroom
Creating Safe Wall Displays
Managing Electrical Outlets and Appliances
Organizing Recycling and Composting Bins
Conducting Classroom Safety Reviews
Providing Safe Indoor Areas for Active Play
Selecting Safe Toys
Ensuring That Toys Are Appropriate
Providing Appropriate Developmental Challenge
Kindergarten and Elementary
Judging Toy Characteristics
Offering Enough Toys
Supporting Children’s Special Developmental Needs
Choosing Toys That Encourage Active Play
Using Toys to Teach Wellness Concepts
Ensuring That Toys are Safe
Meeting Safety Guidelines
Avoiding Choking Hazards
Providing Clean and Sanitary Toys
Keeping Toys Safe
Storing Toys Appropriately
Creating Safe Outdoor Environments
Appreciating the Importance of Outdoor Play Spaces
Considering Injury Hazards
Organizing the Outdoor Environment
Reviewing the Site
Correcting Safety Problems
Establishing Spaces of Sufficient Size
Fencing the Play Space
Designating Activity Areas
Defining Learning Spaces
Clustering Activities
Providing Transition Zones
Arranging Safe Setbacks
Planning Appropriate Spaces
Meeting the Needs of Each Age Group
Preschoolers and School-Age Children
Making Spaces Accessible
Encouraging Socialization
Offering Semiprivate Spaces
Addressing Safety Details
Selecting Appropriate Surfacing Materials
Including Plants, Shrubs, and Trees
Considering Air Quality and Sun Exposure
Choosing Outdoor Play Equipment
Making Developmentally Appropriate Choices
Offering Options for Children with Special Developmental Needs
Selecting Durable Equipment
Addressing Fall and Entrapment Hazards
Entrapment and Pinch or Crush Points
Purchasing and Installing Equipment
Monitoring for Safety
Providing Safe Storage
Supervising Children Near Plant Materials
Watching for Incidental Entry of Hazardous Materials
Recognizing the Effects of the Weather
Conducting Periodic Safety Checks
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 14 Promoting Safe Practices Through Effective Classroom Management
Learning Outcomes
Developing Safe Classroom Routines
Setting the Stage for Safety
Using Evidence-Based Safety Practices
Gathering Information at Enrollment
Orienting Families
Establishing a Daily Schedule
Designing a Schedule of Activities
Creating Familiar Routines
Implementing Smooth Transitions
Addressing Schedule Disruptions
Creating Secure Arrival and Departure Procedures
Ensuring Safety at Arrival and Departure
Signing in and Out
Releasing Children to Appropriate Adults
Monitoring Child Attendance
Contacting Parents About Child Absence
Tracking Midday Variations in Attendance
Transporting Children Safely
Understanding Child Transportation Regulations
Supporting Safe Transportation Practices
Arranging Transportation for Field Trips
Implementing Safe Supervision Practices
Understanding Appropriate Supervision
Supervising by Sight and Sound
Assigning Children to Specific Teachers
Infants and Toddlers
School-Age Children
Children with Special Needs
Temporary Groupings
Coordinating Supervision with Team Teachers
Reassuring Children That They Are Safe
Keeping Focused and Remaining Alert
Supervising Classroom Activities
Planning Appropriate Activities
Managing Interactions with Animals
Supervising Activities That Involve Water
Monitoring the Environment
Supervising Outdoor Activities
Planning Outdoor Playtime
Using Supervision Zones
Teaching Actively
Supervising Special Situations
Staying Alert on Field Trips
Ensuring Safety When Substitutes Are Assigned
Supervising Visitors
Confronting Strangers
Navigating Complicated Family Issues
Guiding Family Events
Enforcing Program Safety Rules
Intervening When Families Are Unsafe
Implementing Safe Management Practices
Identifying Appropriate Safety Management Practices
Understanding the Safety Needs of Infants
Using Infant-Appropriate Safety Practices
Managing for Safety
Teaching Safety Messages
Understanding the Safety Needs of Toddlers
Using Toddler-Appropriate Safety Practices
Managing for Safety
Teaching Safety Messages
Understanding the Safety Needs of Preschoolers
Using Preschooler Appropriate Safety Practices
Managing for Safety
Teaching Safety Messages
Understanding the Safety Needs of School-Age Children
Using School-Age Appropriate Safety Practices
Managing for Safety
Teaching Safety Messages
Understanding the Safety Needs of Children with Special Needs
Implementing Appropriate Safety Practices
Monitoring for Food Allergies
Managing for Safety
Teaching Safety Messages
Managing Challenging Behaviors
Reinforcing Safety Messages
Infusing Safety Messages in Everyday Lessons
Using Teachable Moments
Making Safety Relevant to Children’s Lives
Chapter Quiz 14
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Chapter 15 Child Abuse and Neglect
Learning Outcomes
Understanding Child Maltreatment
Defining Child Maltreatment
The History of Child Abuse Prevention
Types of Child Maltreatment
Physical Abuse
Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
Emotional Abuse
Incidence of Child Maltreatment
Being Aware of Other Forms of Violence in Children’s Lives
Domestic Violence
Media Violence
Community Violence
Gang- and Drug-Related Violence
Perpetrators of Maltreatment
Risk Factors Associated with Maltreatment
Child Risk Factors for Maltreatment
Race and Culture
Disability and Special Developmental Needs
Adult Risk Factors for Maltreating Children
Personal Risk Factors
Situational Risk Factors
Triggering Factors
Identifying Child Maltreatment
Recognizing the Signs of Child Maltreatment
Physical Signs
Observable Marks
Observable Movements
Visible Signs of Neglect
Child Statements
Hiding Signs of Maltreatment
Child Behavioral Signs
Communicating Through Play
Change in Mood
Change in Activity Level
Parent Behaviors
Considering Cultural Perspectives
Reflecting on Family Disciplinary Practices
Evaluating the Effects of Maltreatment and Violence
Impacts on Children
Impacts on Families
Impacts on Teachers
Impacts on Society
Reporting Child Maltreatment
Understanding Reporting Responsibilities
Legally Mandated Reporters
Professional and Ethical Responsibilities
Responding Appropriately When Abuse Is Suspected
Reporting Suspected Abuse and Neglect
Making a Report
Steps in Protective Service
When Maltreatment Is Confirmed
Guidance for Teachers
Supporting Families and Preventing Maltreatment
Creating Safe Environments for Children and Teachers
Being Aware of a Teacher’s Potential for Abuse
Improving Child and Teacher Safety Through Arrangement of the Environment
Following Safety Guidelines
Touching Children Appropriately
Implementing Supportive Strategies for Children
Focusing on Individual Child Needs
The Infant
The Toddler
The Preschooler
The Kindergarten and School-Age Child
Reducing the Child’s Sense of Isolation
Creating Opportunities for Appropriate Problem Solving
Addressing Violence in Children’s Play Themes
Recognizing Violent Themes in Play
Ensuring That Everyone Is Safe
Meeting Children’s Needs
Promoting Healthy Play
Building Conflict Resolution Skills
Reinforcing Resilience and Building Protective Factors.
Supporting Families
Recognizing Overlooked Victims
Building Networks of Support.
Contributing to Community Abuse Prevention Efforts
Positive Community Influences
Mobilizing Abuse Prevention Efforts.
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Web Resources
Key Terms
Chapter 16 Managing Emergencies
Learning Outcomes
Preparing for Emergencies
Defining Emergencies
Creating an Emergency Management Plan
Analyzing Potential Emergency Threats
Removing Potential Hazards
Identifying How to Access Emergency Resources
Addressing Site-Specific Characteristics
Planning for Children’s Special Needs
Understanding Options for Taking Shelter
Transporting Children
Preparing for Action
Identifying Roles and Responsibilities
Assembling First Aid Kits
Creating a Blood Spill Cleanup Kit
Assembling Emergency Supplies
Compiling Children’s Emergency Information
Communicating the Plan to Families
Posting Emergency Procedures
Accessing Emergency Response Training
Obtaining First Aid and CPR Training
Accessing Specialized Training
Participating in Community Disaster Response Training
Conducting Emergency Drills
Practicing Emergency Drills with Children
Testing Disaster Emergency Response
Responding to Emergencies
Defining First Aid
Understanding Volunteer Protection Laws
Assessing for Injury
Using Universal Precautions
Conducting CPR
C = Chest Compressions
A = Airway
B = Breathing/Ventilation
Clearing the Airway
Stopping Bleeding
Cleaning Blood Spills
Cleaning Blood Spills Indoors
Cleaning Blood Spills Outdoors
Cleaning Large Blood Spills
Cleaning Upholstery and Carpeting
Addressing Blood Spill Splatters
Administering Basic First Aid Care
Head Injury
Anaphylactic Shock: Severe Allergic Reaction
Animal Bites
Human Bites
Spider Bites
Bruises and Bumps
Electrical Shock
Foreign Objects
Tooth Injury
Heat Exhaustion
Taking Action in Disasters
Implementing Lockdown
Evacuating and Relocating
Responding to Natural Disasters
Wildfires and Forest Fires
Responding to Technological Hazards
Disruption of Utilities
Chemical Spills and Explosions of Hazardous Materials
Attacks and Threats to Personal Safety
Addressing Disease Emergencies
Reflecting on and Evaluating Emergency Response
Supporting Children After Emergencies
Being a Confident Role Model
Returning to Familiar Routines
Acknowledging Children’s Feelings
Focusing on the Positive Actions That Were Taken
Addressing Tragedies
Offering Empowering Activities
Continuing to Monitor the Effects on Children
Recognizing That Teachers Need Support Too
Chapter Quiz
Discussion Starters
Practice Points
Selected Websites
Key Terms
Name Index
Subject Index
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Test Bank for Nutrition Health and Safety for Young Children Promoting Wellness 3rd Edition by Joanne Sorte