Test bank for Nutrition An Applied Approach 5th Edition by Janice J. Thompson



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Test bank for Nutrition An Applied Approach 5th Edition by Janice J. Thompson

Test bank for Nutrition An Applied Approach 5th Edition by Janice J. Thompson

For courses in Nutrition for nonÂż-majors.   Nutrition concepts applied to our daily lives Nutrition: An Applied Approach introduces nonÂż-majors to nutrition with an innovative format that promotes long-term learning without rote memorization. Key focus areas include: functions of vitamins and minerals in the body, fluid and electrolyte balance, antioxidant function, bone health, energy metabolism, and blood health. The 5th Edition shows how nutrition concepts apply to our daily lives with new chapters on food equity, sustainability, and obesity. A new suite of ABC News Videos and Focus Figures explore nutrition, human disease, and nutrients found in food. To engage students and help them learn, understand, and retain even the most difficult concepts, each chapter now includes Learning Outcomes and a new study plan that connects to Mastering™ Nutrition reading quizzes and exercises.   Also available with Mastering Nutrition Mastering™ Nutrition is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment program designed to work with this text to engage students and improve results. Interactive, self-paced tutorials provide individualized coaching to help students stay on track. With a wide range of activities available, students can actively learn, understand, and retain even the most difficult concepts.                                              Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; Mastering Nutrition does not come packaged with this content. Students, if interested in purchasing this title with Mastering Nutrition, ask your instructor for the correct package ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.   If you would like to purchase both the physical text and Mastering Nutrition, search for:   0134564480 / 9780134564487 Nutrition: An Applied Approach Plus Mastering Nutrition with MyDietAnalysis with Pearson eText — Access Card Package, 5/e   Package consists of: 0134516230 / 9780134516233 Nutrition: An Applied Approach 013455194X / 9780134551944 Mastering Nutrition with MyDietAnalysis with Pearson eText — ValuePack Access Card — for Nutrition: An Applied Approach Nutrition: An Applied Approach , 5th  Edition is also available via  Pearson eText, a simple-to-use, mobile, personalized reading experience that lets instructors connect with and motivate students – right in their eTextbook.  Learn more.


Brief Contents
Nutrition An Applied Approach
about the authors
Welcome to Nutrition: An Applied Approach, Fifth Edition!
nutri-case | You Play the Expert!
focus group participants
brief contents
1 Nutrition Linking food and health
test yourself
learning outcomes
What is nutrition?
How does nutrition support health?
A Nutritious Diet Contributes to Wellness
A Nutritious Diet Reduces the Risk for Disease
What are nutrients?
Macronutrients Provide Energy
Energy Is Measured in Kilocalories
Carbohydrates Are a Primary Fuel Source
Fats Provide Energy and Other Essential Nutrients
Proteins Support Tissue Growth, Repair, and Maintenance
Micronutrients Assist in the Regulation of Body Functions
Water Supports All Body Functions
How much of each nutrient do most people need?
How do nutrition scientists evaluate claims?
The Scientific Method Enables Researchers to Test a Hypothesis
Repetition of Research Is Required to Develop Theories
Why do nutrition scientists use different types of research?
Animal Studies Can Inform Human Studies
Epidemiological Studies Explore Patterns Within Populations
Clinical Trials Examine Cause and Effect
How can you use your knowledge of research to evaluate nutrition claims?
Watch for Conflict of Interest and Bias
Evaluate a Website’s Credibility
Which sources of nutrition advice are trustworthy?
Trustworthy Experts Are Educated and Credentialed
Government Agencies Are Usually Trustworthy
The National Institutes of Health
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Professional Organizations Provide Reliable Nutrition Information
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 1.5 New Frontiers in Nutrition and Health
learning outcomes
How does our diet affect our genes?
The Foods We Eat Can Influence Gene Expression
Nutrigenomics Studies Food-Gene Interactions
Nutrigenomics Could Lead to Personalized Nutrition
How does our diet affect our microbiome?
A Healthy Microbiome Promotes a Healthy Body
Probiotics and Prebiotics Nourish the Microbiome
How do phytochemicals enhance our health?
web links
2 Designing a Healthful Diet
test yourself
learning outcomes
What is a healthful diet?
A Healthful Diet Is Adequate
A Healthful Diet Is Moderate
A Healthful Diet Is Nutrient-Dense
A Healthful Diet Is Balanced
A Healthful Diet Is Varied
What’s behind our food choices?
Sensory Data Influence Food Choices
Sociocultural Cues and Emotions Influence Food Choices
Learning Influences Food Choices
How can reading food labels help you improve your diet?
Five Components Must Be Included on Food Labels
Use the Nutrition Facts Panel to Evaluate and Compare Foods
Food Labels Can Display a Variety of Claims
How do the Dietary Guidelines for Americans promote a healthful diet?
How can the USDA Food Patterns help you design a healthful diet?
Log Onto MyPlate
Limit Empty Calories
Watch Your Serving Sizes
Consider Ethnic Variations and Other Eating Plans
Get Some High-Tech Help
Can eating out be part of a healthful diet?
Avoid Large Portions
Use Nutrition Information
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 2.5 Healthful Eating Patterns
learning outcomes
What is a healthful eating pattern?
What are some healthful eating patterns?
A Mediterranean-Style Eating Pattern Is Healthful
The Exchange System Can Help You Follow a Healthful Eating Pattern
The Healthy Eating Plate and Power Plate Are Also Healthful Eating Patterns
Include Regular Physical Activity
web links
3 The Human Body Are we really what we eat?
test yourself
learning outcomes
How do food molecules build body structure?
Atoms Bond to Form Molecules
Molecules Join to Form Cells
From Cells to Systems
The Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm and Key Organelles
Why do we feel the urge to eat?
The Hypothalamus Regulates Hunger
Nerve Cells in the Gastrointestinal System Signal the Hypothalamus
Hormones Send Chemical Messages to the Hypothalamus
Insulin and Glucagon
Ghrelin, CCK, and Leptin
The Amount and Type of Food Play a Role
How does food travel through the gastrointestinal tract?
Digestion Begins in the Mouth
The Esophagus Transports Food from the Pharynx into the Stomach
The Stomach Mixes, Digests, and Stores Food
Most Digestion and Absorption Occur in the Small Intestine
The Large Intestine Stores Food Waste Until It Is Excreted
What else contributes to gastrointestinal function?
The Gallbladder and Pancreas Aid in Digestion
A Specialized Lining Boosts Absorption in the Small Intestine
Four Types of Absorption Occur in the Small Intestine
Blood and Lymph Transport Nutrients
The Liver Regulates Blood Nutrients
The GI Flora Perform Several Beneficial Functions
The Neuromuscular System Regulates the Activities of the GI Tract
Muscles of the GI Tract
Nerves Controlling the GI Tract
What disorders are related to digestion, absorption, and elimination?
Heartburn and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Are Caused by Reflux of Gastric Juice
An Ulcer Is an Area of Erosion in the GI Tract
Some Disorders Affect Intestinal Function
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Cancer Can Develop in Any Gastrointestinal Organ
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 3.5 Disorders Related to Specific Foods
What are food intolerances?
What are food allergies?
Is celiac disease the same as gluten sensitivity?
Celiac Disease Is an Inherited Immune Disease
Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity Is the Subject of Research
4 Carbohydrates Plant-derived energy nutrients
test yourself
learning outcomes
What are carbohydrates?
Simple Carbohydrates Include Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
Polysaccharides Are Complex Carbohydrates
Soluble Fibers
Insoluble Fibers
Fiber-Rich Carbohydrates
Why do we need carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates Provide Energy for Daily Activities and Exercise
Carbohydrates Fuel Daily Activity
Carbohydrates Fuel Exercise
Carbohydrates Spare Protein and Prevent Ketoacidosis
Fiber Helps Us Stay Healthy
How does the body process carbohydrates?
Digestion Breaks Down Most Carbohydrates into Monosaccharides
The Liver Converts Most Nonglucose Monosaccharides into Glucose
Fiber Is Excreted from the Large Intestine
How does the body regulate blood glucose levels?
Insulin and Glucagon Regulate Blood Glucose Levels
Fructose Does Not Stimulate Insulin Release
Other Hormones Increase Blood Glucose Levels
The Glycemic Index Shows How Foods Affect Our Blood Glucose Level
How much total carbohydrate and added sugar should you eat?
The Recommended Dietary Allowance for Total Carbohydrate Reflects Glucose Use by the Brain
Most Americans Eat Too Much Added Sugar
Sugars Are Blamed for Many Health Problems
Sugar and Tooth Decay
Sugar and Blood Lipids
Sugar and Diabetes
Sugar and Obesity
How much fiber do you need, and what are the best sources?
Whole Grains Are Excellent Sources of Fiber
Other Good Sources of Fiber Are Vegetables, Fruits, Nuts, and Seeds
What’s the story on alternative sweeteners?
Limited Use of Alternative Sweeteners Is Not Harmful
Neotame, Stevia, and Advantame
The Effect of Alternative Sweeteners on Body Weight Is Unclear
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 4.5 Diabetes
learning outcomes
What is diabetes?
How is diabetes classified?
In Type 1 Diabetes, the Body Does Not Produce Enough Insulin
In Type 2 Diabetes, Cells Become Less Responsive to Insulin
Three Blood Tests Are Used to Diagnose Diabetes
How can you reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes?
Some Diabetes Risk Factors Are Modifiable
Lifestyle Changes Can Reduce Your Risk
Dietary Counseling Can Help People Living with Diabetes
Prescription Medications or Surgery May Be Advised
web links
5 Fats Essential energy-supplying nutrients
test yourself
learning outcomes
What are fats?
Triglycerides Are the Most Common Food-Based Fat
Phospholipids Combine Lipids with Phosphate
Sterols Have a Ring Structure
Why are some triglycerides better than others?
Fatty Acid Chain Length Affects Digestion and Absorption
Level of Hydrogen Saturation Influences Health Effects
Carbon Bonding Influences Shape
Trans Fatty Acids Are Especially Harmful
Essential Fatty Acids Have Unique Health Benefits
Omega-6 Fatty Acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Functions of Essential Fatty Acids
Why do we need fats?
Fats Provide Energy
Fats Sustain Us at Rest
Fats Fuel Physical Activity
Body Fat Stores Energy for Later Use
Fats Enable the Transport of Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Fats Help Maintain Cell Function
Body Fat Provides Protection
Dietary Fats Contribute to the Flavor, Texture, and Satiety of Foods
How does the body process fats?
The Gallbladder, Liver, and Pancreas Assist in Fat Digestion
Absorption of Fat Occurs Primarily in the Small Intestine
Fat Is Stored in Adipose Tissues for Later Use
How much fat should you eat?
Recognize the Fat in Foods
Decipher Label Claims
Keep Your Fat Intake Within the AMDR
Aim for a Balance of the Essential Fatty Acids
Reduce Your Intake of Saturated Fats
Avoid Trans Fatty Acids
What About Dietary Cholesterol?
Select Beneficial Fats
Pick Plants
Switch to Fish
Watch Out When You’re Eating Out
Be Aware of Fat Replacers
Fat Blockers Contribute Minimally to Weight Loss
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 5.5 Cardiovascular Disease
learning outcomes
What is cardiovascular disease?
Atherosclerosis Is Narrowing of Arteries
Hypertension Increases the Risk for Heart Attack and Stroke
What factors influence the risk for cardiovascular disease?
Many CVD Risk Factors Are Within Your Control
Blood Lipids Play a Significant Role in Cardiovascular Disease
Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins
Low-Density Lipoproteins
High-Density Lipoproteins
Total Serum Cholesterol
You Can Estimate Your Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
How can you reduce your risk for cardiovascular disease?
Take Steps to Improve Your Blood Lipid Levels
Take Steps to Manage Your Blood Pressure
Limit Dietary Sodium
Follow the DASH Diet
Prescription Medications Can Improve Blood Lipids and Blood Pressure
web links
6 Proteins Crucial components of all body tissues
test yourself
learning outcomes
What are proteins?
The Building Blocks of Proteins Are Amino Acids
Nine Amino Acids Are Essential
How are proteins made?
Amino Acids Bond to Form a Variety of Peptides
Genes Regulate Amino Acid Binding
Protein Turnover Involves Synthesis and Degradation
Protein Organization Determines Function
Protein Denaturation Affects Shape and Function
Protein Synthesis Can Be Limited by Missing Amino Acids
Protein Synthesis Can Be Enhanced by Mutual Supplementation
Why do we need proteins?
Proteins Contribute to Cell Growth, Repair, and Maintenance
Proteins Act as Enzymes and Hormones
Proteins Help Maintain Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Proteins Help Maintain Acid–Base Balance
Proteins Help Maintain a Strong Immune System
Proteins Serve as an Energy Source
Proteins Assist in the Transport and Storage of Nutrients
Proteins Are Critical to Nerve Function, Blood Clotting, and Wound Healing
How does the body process proteins?
Stomach Acids and Enzymes Break Proteins into Short Polypeptides
Enzymes in the Small Intestine Break Polypeptides into Single Amino Acids
Protein Digestibility Affects Protein Quality
How much protein should you eat?
Nitrogen Balance Is a Method Used to Determine Protein Needs
Recommended Dietary Allowance for Protein
Most Americans Meet or Exceed the RDA for Protein
Protein Sources Include Much More Than Meat!
“New” Foods
The Health Effects of High Protein Intake Are Unclear
Protein Deficiency Can Result in Severe Illness and Death
Protein Deficiency and Marasmus
Protein Deficiency and Kwashiorkor
Can a vegetarian diet provide adequate protein?
There Are Many Types of Vegetarian Diets
People Choose Vegetarianism for Many Different Reasons
Religious, Ethical, and Food-Safety Reasons
Ecological Benefits
Health Benefits
A Vegetarian Diet Can Present Some Challenges
MyPlate Can Help You Plan a Vegetarian Diet
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 6.5 Vitamins and Minerals: Micronutrients with Macro Powers
learning outcomes
How were the micronutrients discovered?
How are vitamins classified?
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Same Vitamin, Different Names and Forms
How are minerals classified?
Major Minerals
Trace and Ultra-Trace Minerals
Same Mineral, Different Forms
How does our body use micronutrients?
What We Eat Differs from What We Absorb
What We Eat Differs from What Our Cells Use
What are some controversies in micronutrient research?
Are Supplements Healthful Sources of Micronutrients?
Can Micronutrients Prevent or Treat Chronic Disease?
Do More Essential Micronutrients Exist?
7 Nutrients Essential to Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
test yourself
learning outcomes
What is body fluid?
Body Fluid Is the Liquid Portion of Our Cells and Tissues
Body Fluid Is Composed of Water and Electrolytes
Why do we need water and electrolytes?
Water Performs Functions Critical to Life
Solubility and Transport
Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
Body Temperature
Tissue Protection and Lubrication
Electrolytes Support Many Body Functions
Fluid Balance
Nerve Impulse Conduction
Muscle Contraction
How does the body maintain fluid balance?
The Hypothalamus Regulates Thirst
We Gain Fluids Through Intake and Metabolism
We Lose Fluids Through Urine, Sweat, Evaporation, Exhalation, and Feces
How much water should you drink?
Our Requirements for Water Are Individualized
Tap Water Is as Healthful as Bottled Water
All Beverages Are Not Created Equal
Milk and Milk Alternatives
Hot Beverages Containing Caffeine
Energy Drinks
Beverages with Added Sugars
Specialty Waters
Sports Beverages and Coconut Water
How do four major minerals contribute to fluid balance?
Sodium Is a Positively Charged Extracellular Electrolyte
Functions of Sodium
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium
Sodium Toxicity and Deficiency
Potassium Is a Positively Charged Intracellular Electrolyte
Functions of Potassium
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Potassium
Potassium Toxicity and Deficiency
Chloride Is a Negatively Charged Extracellular Electrolyte
Phosphorus Is a Negatively Charged Intracellular Electrolyte
What disorders are related to fluid and electrolyte balance?
Dehydration Develops as Fluid Loss Exceeds Fluid Intake
Water Intoxication Can Be Fatal
Heat Illnesses Are Linked to Dehydration
Heat Cramps
Heat Exhaustion
Heat Stroke
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 7.5 Alcohol
What happens to alcohol in the body?
What do we know about moderate drinking?
Moderate Drinking Has Certain Health Benefits
Moderate Drinking Is Associated with Certain Risks
What do we know about alcohol use disorders?
Alcohol Use Disorders Include Abuse and Dependence
Alcohol Use Disorders Have Toxic Effects
Should you be concerned about your alcohol intake?
How can you talk to someone about an alcohol use disorder?
8 Nutrients Essential to Key Body Functions
test yourself
learning outcomes
How does the body regulate energy metabolism?
How do the B-vitamins function in energy metabolism?
Thiamin Supports Carbohydrate and Amino Acid Metabolism
Riboflavin Supports the Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Fats
Niacin Supports Metabolism, DNA Replication, and Cell Differentiation
Vitamin B6[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T16: 70C 90M]B_{6}~normal~&] Is a Coenzyme for Over 100 Enzymes
Functions of Vitamin B6
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Vitamin B6[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T12: 100C 40Y]B_{6}~normal~&]
Vitamin B6[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T12: 100C 40Y]B_{6}~normal~&] Toxicity and Deficiency
The Most Basic Cellular Functions Require Folate
Functions of Folate
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Folate
Folate Toxicity and Deficiency
Vitamin B12[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T16: 70C 90M]B_{12}~normal~&] Participates in Amino Acid and Homocysteine Metabolism
Functions of Vitamin B12[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T12: 100C 40Y]B_{12}~normal~&]
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Vitamin B12[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T12: 100C 40Y]B_{12}~normal~&]
Vitamin B12[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T12: 100C 40Y]B_{12}~normal~&] Toxicity and Deficiency
Pantothenic Acid and Biotin Are Required for All Energy Pathways
How do choline and four minerals function in energy metabolism?
Choline Is a Vitamin-Like Nutrient
Iodine Is Required for the Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones
Chromium Is Important in Carbohydrate Metabolism
Manganese Assists in Energy Metabolism and Bone Health
Sulfur Is a Component of Thiamin, Biotin, and Two Amino Acids
What are antioxidants, and how do they protect our cells?
Oxidation Is a Chemical Reaction in Which Atoms Lose Electrons
Oxidation Sometimes Results in the Formation of Free Radicals
Free Radicals Can Destabilize Other Molecules and Damage Our Cells
Antioxidants Work by Stabilizing Free Radicals or Opposing Oxidation
What nutrients and phytochemicals function as antioxidants?
Vitamin E Is a Key Antioxidant
Functions of Vitamin E
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Vitamin E
Vitamin E Toxicity and Deficiency
Vitamin C Is a Water-Soluble Antioxidant
Selenium Is a Key Antioxidant Mineral
Manganese, Copper, Iron, and Zinc Assist in Antioxidant Function
Carotenoids Like Beta-Carotene Have Antioxidant Properties
Functions of Beta-Carotene
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Beta-Carotene
Beta-Carotene Toxicity and Deficiency
What is the role of vitamin A in vision and other functions?
There Are Several Forms of Vitamin A
Vitamin A Is Essential to Sight
Vitamin A Supports Cell Differentiation, Reproduction, and Bone Growth
Avoid Excessive Intake of Vitamin A
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Vitamin A
Vitamin A Toxicity and Deficiency
Vitamin A Derivatives Are Effective in Treating Acne
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 8.5 Cancer
learning outcomes
What is cancer and how does it arise?
What factors influence cancer risk?
Nonmodifiable Factors Play a Role
Many Risk Factors Are Modifiable
Tobacco Use
Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity
Infectious Agents
Ultraviolet Radiation
How is cancer diagnosed and treated?
Can cancer be prevented?
Antioxidants Play a Role in Preventing Cancer
web links
9 Nutrients Essential to Healthy Tissues
test Yourself
learning outcomes
How do three trace minerals help maintain healthy blood?
Iron Is a Component of the Oxygen-Carrying Proteins in Blood and Muscle
Functions of Iron
Iron Storage and Recycling
Iron Absorption
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Iron
Iron Toxicity
Iron Deficiency
Zinc Contributes to Hemoglobin
Functions of Zinc
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Zinc
Zinc Toxicity and Deficiency
Copper Is Critical for Iron Transport
How do four vitamins promote healthy blood?
Vitamin B6[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T16: 70C 90M]B_{6},~normal~&] Folate, and Vitamin B12[&~frut65~~COLOR~[T16: 70C 90M]B_{12}~normal~&] Are Required for the Healthy Development of Red Blood Cells
Vitamin K Supports Blood Clotting
How does vitamin C help maintain healthy collagen?
Vitamin C Is Required for the Synthesis of Collagen
Vitamin C Has Many Other Roles in the Body
The RDA for Vitamin C Is Easily Obtained
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Vitamin C
Vitamin C Toxicity and Deficiency
What are the components and activities of healthy bone?
The Composition of Bone Provides Strength and Flexibility
The Constant Activity of Bone Tissue Promotes Bone Health
Bone Growth and Modeling
Bone Remodeling
Bone Density Is Assessed with a DXA Test
How do four minerals help maintain healthy bone?
Calcium Is the Major Mineral Component of Bone
Functions of Calcium
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Calcium
Calcium Toxicity and Deficiency
Phosphorus Combines with Calcium in Hydroxyapatite Crystals
Magnesium Is a Component of Bone and Helps Regulate Bone Status
Fluoride Is Found in Teeth and Bones
How do two fat-soluble vitamins support healthy bone?
Vitamin D Regulates Calcium
Functions of Vitamin D
Recommended Intakes and Food Sources of Vitamin D
Vitamin D Toxicity and Deficiency
Vitamin K Assists in Remodeling of Bone
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 9.5 Osteoporosis
learning outcomes
What is osteoporosis?
What influences osteoporosis risk?
Aging Increases Osteoporosis Risk
Gender and Genetics Affect Osteoporosis Risk
Tobacco, Alcohol, and Caffeine Influence Osteoporosis Risk
Nutritional Factors Influence Osteoporosis Risk
Calcium and Vitamin D
Regular Physical Activity Reduces Osteoporosis Risk
How is osteoporosis treated?
Can osteoporosis be prevented?
Some People Might Benefit from Supplements
Vitamin D
Physical Activity and Other Lifestyle Choices Can Help
web links
10 Achieving and Maintaining a Healthful Body Weight
test yourself
learning outcomes
What is a healthful body weight?
How can you evaluate your body weight?
Determine Your Body Mass Index
Why Is BMI Important?
Limitations of BMI
Measure Your Body Composition
Assess Your Fat Distribution Patterns
How does energy balance influence body weight?
Energy Intake Is the Kilocalories We Consume Each Day
Energy Expenditure Includes More Than Just Physical Activity
Basal Metabolic Rate
The Thermic Effect of Food
The Energy Cost of Physical Activity
Research Suggests Limitations of the Energy Balance Equation
What factors influence body weight?
Genes May Influence Body Weight in Different Ways
The FTO Gene
The Thrifty Gene Hypothesis
The Set-Point Hypothesis
The Protein Leverage Hypothesis
The Drifty Gene Hypothesis
Metabolic Factors Influence Weight Loss and Gain
Physiologic Factors Influence Body Weight
Hypothalamic Cells
Energy-Regulating Hormones
Other Physiologic Factors
Sociocultural Factors Affect Food Choices and Body Weight
Sociocultural Factors and Overeating
Sociocultural Factors and Inactivity
Social Pressures, Overweight, and Underweight
How can you lose weight safely and keep it off?
Avoid Fad Diets
Many Diets Focus on Macronutrient Composition
Diets High in Carbohydrate and Moderate in Fat and Protein
Diets Low in Carbohydrate and High in Fat and Protein
If You Design Your Own Diet Plan, Include the Three Strategies
Set Realistic Goals
Eat Smaller Portions of Nutrient-Dense Foods
Participate in Regular Physical Activity
Incorporate Appropriate Behavior Modifications into Daily Life
What if you need to gain weight?
For Safe and Effective Weight Gain, Choose Nutrient-Dense Foods
Amino Acid and Protein Supplements Do Not Increase Muscle Mass
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 10.5 Obesity
learning outcomes
Why is obesity harmful?
Why does obesity occur?
How is obesity treated?
Obesity Does Respond to Diet and Exercise
Weight Loss Can Be Enhanced with Prescription Medications
Many Supplements Used for Weight Loss Contain Stimulants
Surgery Can Be Used to Treat Morbid Obesity
web links
11 Nutrition and Physical Fitness Keys to good health
test Yourself
learning outcomes
What are the benefits of physical activity?
Physical Activity Increases Our Fitness
Physical Activity Reduces Our Risk for Chronic Diseases
How can you improve your fitness?
Assess Your Current Level of Fitness
Identify Your Personal Fitness Goals
Make Your Program Varied, Consistent, and Fun!
Appropriately Overload Your Body
Time of Activity
Type of Activity
Include a Warm-Up and a Cool-Down Period
Keep It Simple, Take It Slow
What fuels our activities?
The ATP-CP Energy System Uses Creatine Phosphate to Regenerate ATP
The Breakdown of Carbohydrates Provides Energy for Both Brief and Long-Term Exercise
Aerobic Breakdown of Fats Supports Exercise of Low Intensity and Long Duration
Amino Acids Are Not Major Sources of Fuel During Exercise
How does physical activity affect energy and macronutrient needs?
Vigorous Exercise Increases Energy Needs
Carbohydrate Needs Increase for Many Active People
DRIs for Carbohydrate for Athletes
Timing of Carbohydrate Consumption
Food Sources of Carbohydrates for Athletes
Carbohydrate Loading
Moderate Fat Consumption Is Enough to Support Most Activities
Many Athletes Have Increased Protein Needs
How does physical activity affect fluid and micronutrient needs?
Dehydration and Heat-Related Illnesses
Guidelines for Proper Fluid Replacement
Inadequate Micronutrient Intake Can Diminish Health and Performance
Are ergogenic aids necessary for active people?
Many Ergogenic Aids Are Said to Build Muscle Mass and Strength
Anabolic Steroids
Androstenedione and Dehydroepiandrosterone
Some Ergogenic Aids Are Said to Optimize Fuel Use
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 11.5 Disorders Related to Body Image, Eating, and Exercise
learning outcomes
What is body image, and how does it influence health?
Body Image Influences Eating Behaviors
Body Image Influences Exercise Behaviors
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Is a Psychiatric Diagnosis
What factors contribute to disorders related to body image, eating, and exercise?
Influence of Genetic Factors
Influence of Family
Influence of Media
Influence of Social and Cultural Values
Comorbidity with Other Psychological Disorders
What psychiatric eating disorders are recognized?
Anorexia Nervosa
Signs and Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa
Health Risks of Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Signs and Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa
Health Risks of Bulimia Nervosa
Binge-Eating Disorder
What syndromes of disordered eating are recognized?
Night-Eating Syndrome
The Female Athlete Triad
How are eating disorders treated?
web links
12 Food Safety and Technology Protecting our food
test yourself
learning outcomes
What is foodborne illness and why is it a critical concern?
Ingestion of Contaminants Prompts Acute Illness
Reducing Foodborne Illness Is a Challenge
What causes most foodborne illness?
Several Types of Microorganisms Contaminate Foods
Viruses Involved in Foodborne Illness
Bacteria Involved in Foodborne Illness
Other Microorganisms Involved in Foodborne Illness
Some Foodborne Illness Is Due to Toxins
Bacterial Toxins
Fungal Toxins
Toxic Algae
Plant Toxins
Certain Conditions Help Microorganisms Multiply in Foods
How can you prevent foodborne illness?
Clean: Wash Your Hands and Kitchen Surfaces Often
Separate: Don’t Cross-Contaminate
Chill: Store Foods in the Refrigerator or Freezer
Shopping for Perishable Foods
Refrigerating Foods at Home
Freezing and Thawing Foods
Dealing with Molds in Refrigerated Foods
Cook: Heat Foods Thoroughly
Protect Yourself from Toxins in Foods
Be Choosy When Eating Out—Close to Home or Far Away
How is food spoilage prevented?
What are food additives, and are they safe?
Food Additives Include Nutrients and Preservatives
Other Food Additives Include Flavorings, Colorings, and Texturizers
Are Food Additives Safe?
How is genetic modification used in food production, and is it safe?
Genetic Modification Includes Selective Breeding and Recombinant DNA Technology
Genetic Modification Has Many Benefits
Genetic Modification Poses Certain Risks
Potential Health Risks
Environmental Risks
Economic Instability
Should GM Foods Be Labeled?
How do residues harm our food supply?
Persistent Organic Pollutants Can Cause Illness
Health Risks of POPs
Heavy Metals
Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances
Pesticides Protect Against Crop Losses—But at a Cost
Growth Hormones and Antibiotics Are Used in Animals
Organic Farming Promotes Ecological Balance
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
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review questions
math review
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in depth 12.5 The Safety and Effectiveness of Dietary Supplements
learning outcomes
How are dietary supplements regulated?
Are there special precautions for herbs?
Should you take a dietary supplement?
web links
13 Food Equity, Sustainability, and Quality The challenge of “good food”
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learning outcomes
How prevalent is food insecurity?
About 795 Million People Worldwide Are Hungry
Over 17 Million American Households Are Food Insecure
Why don’t all people have access to nourishing food?
Acute Food Shortages Are Often Caused by Weather Events and Wars
The Major Cause of Chronic Hunger Is Unequal Distribution of Food
Overpopulation Contributes to Chronic Food Shortages
Local Conditions Can Contribute to Chronic Hunger
Agricultural Practices
Lack of Infrastructure
Impact of Disease
Climate Change Threatens Global Food Security
Is our food equitably produced and sold?
Farm Labor Is Dangerous and Poorly Paid
Food Retail and Service Work Maintains the “Working Poor”
How does industrial agriculture affect the security, sustainability, and diversity of our food supply?
Industrial Agriculture Has Increased Food Security but Threatens Our Environment
Monopolization of Agriculture Reduces Food Diversity
The Food Industry Influences America’s Diet
What initiatives are addressing the challenges of “good” food?
Many International Initiatives Increase Access to Nourishing Food
National and Local Programs Help Nourish Americans
Sustainable Agriculture Reduces Environmental Impact and Increases Food Diversity
Corporate and Philanthropic Initiatives Are Promoting “Good” Food
How can you promote “good” food?
Support Food Security
Purchase Fair Trade Goods
Choose Foods That Are Healthful for You and the Environment
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
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review questions
math review
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in depth 13.5 Malnutrition
learning outcomes
What problems are linked to undernourishment?
Low Energy Intake Promotes Wasting, Stunting, and Mortality
Micronutrient Deficiencies Lead to Preventable Diseases
Undernourishment Promotes Socioeconomic Problems
How could limited access to good food promote obesity?
A Nutrition Paradox Is Evident in Transitioning Populations
Physical and Socioeconomic Factors May Promote Obesity Among the Poor
web links
14 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Pregnancy and the first year of life
test yourself
learning outcomes
How does a healthful diet support conception and gestation?
A Healthful Diet Is Critical Before Conception
A Healthful Diet Supports Embryonic and Fetal Development
The First Trimester
The Second Trimester
The Third Trimester
Appropriate Maternal Weight Gain Supports a Healthy Birth Weight
What are a pregnant woman’s nutrient needs?
Macronutrients Provide Energy and Build Tissues
Recommendations for Energy Intake
Recommendations for Protein and Carbohydrate Intake
Recommendations for Fat Intake
Micronutrients Support Increased Energy Needs and Tissue Growth
Recommended Folate Intake
Recommended Vitamin B12[&~COLOR~[T12: 100C 40Y]~frut65~B_{12}~norm~~COLOR~[Black]&] Intake
Recommended Vitamin C Intake
Recommended Vitamin A Intake
Recommended Vitamin D Intake
Recommended Calcium Intake
Recommended Iron Intake
Recommended Zinc Intake
Recommended Sodium and Iodine Intake
Do Pregnant Women Need Supplements?
Fluid Needs of Pregnant Women Increase
What are some common nutrition-related concerns of pregnancy?
Morning Sickness, Cravings, and GI Discomfort Are Common
Morning Sickness
Gastroesophageal Reflux
Serious Disorders Include Diabetes, Hypertension, and Foodborne Illness
Gestational Diabetes
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
Foodborne Illness
Maternal Age Can Affect Pregnancy
A Careful Vegetarian Diet and Regular Exercise Are Safe During Pregnancy
Many Substances Can Harm the Embryo or Fetus
Caffeine Consumption
Alcohol Consumption
Illegal Drug Use
How does nutrition support lactation?
Lactation Is Maintained by Hormones and Infant Suckling
Production of Colostrum
Production of Breast Milk
Breastfeeding Woman Have High Nutrient Needs
Energy and Macronutrient Recommendations
Micronutrient Recommendations
Do Breastfeeding Women Need Supplements?
Fluid Recommendations for Breastfeeding Women
What are some advantages and challenges of breastfeeding?
Breast Milk Is Nutritionally Superior to Infant Formula
Breastfeeding Has Many Other Benefits for the Infant and Mother
Protection from Infections, Allergies, and Residues
Physiologic Benefits for Mother
Mother–Infant Bonding
Convenience and Cost
Physical and Social Concerns Can Make Breastfeeding Challenging
Effects of Drugs and Other Substances on Breast Milk
Maternal HIV Infection
Maternal Obesity
Employment Conflicts
Social Concerns
What About Bonding for Fathers and Siblings?
What are an infant’s nutrient needs?
Nutrition Fuels Infant Growth and Activity
Infants Have Unique Nutrient Needs
Energy and Macronutrient Recommendations
Micronutrient Recommendations
Do Infants Need Supplements?
Fluid Recommendations for Infants
Infant Formula Is a Nutritious Alternative to Breast Milk
What are some common nutrition-related concerns of infancy?
Infants Begin to Need Solid Foods at About 6 Months of Age
Some Foods and Beverages Are Not Safe for Infants
Several Nutrition-Related Disorders Are Concerns for Infants
Nursing Bottle Syndrome
Lead Poisoning
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Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
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in depth 14.5 The Fetal Environment
learning outcomes
How does fetal adaptation to famine affect adult health?
How do other nutritional imbalances in utero affect adult health?
web links
15 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Childhood to late adulthood
test yourself
learning outcomes
What are the nutritional needs and concerns of toddlerhood?
Body Size and Activity Increase Toddlers’ Nutrient Needs
Energy and Macronutrient Recommendations for Toddlers
Micronutrient Recommendations for Toddlers
Fluid Recommendations for Toddlers
Encourage Nutritious Food Choices with Toddlers
Vegan Diets May Not Be Healthful for Toddlers
What are the nutritional needs and concerns of childhood?
Growth and Development Increase Children’s Nutrient Needs
Energy and Macronutrient Recommendations for Children
Micronutrient Recommendations for Children
Fluid Recommendations for Children
Encourage Nutritious Food Choices with Children
School Attendance Influences Children’s Nutrition
Childhood Brings Unique Nutrition-Related Concerns
Dental Caries
Inadequate Calcium Intake
Childhood Food Insecurity
What are the nutritional needs and concerns of adolescence?
Puberty Triggers Dramatic Growth and Maturation
Rapid Growth Increases an Adolescent’s Nutrient Needs
Energy and Macronutrient Recommendations for Adolescents
Micronutrient Recommendations for Adolescents
Vitamin D
Vitamin A
Fluid Recommendations for Adolescents
Encourage Nutritious Food Choices with Adolescents
Appearance and Substance Use Are Key Concerns of Adolescence
Body Image and Eating Disorders
Adolescent Acne
Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illegal Drugs
Why is pediatric obesity harmful, and what can be done?
Obesity Impairs Children’s Health
Encourage Healthful Eating Patterns
Encourage Physical Activity
What characterizes aging?
Americans Are Getting Older
Characteristic Physiologic Changes Accompany Aging
Age-Related Changes in Sensory Perception
Age-Related Changes in Gastrointestinal Function
Age-Related Changes in Body Composition
What are the nutritional needs and concerns of older adults?
Some Nutrient Recommendations Increase or Decrease with Aging
Energy and Macronutrient Recommendations for Older Adults
Micronutrient Recommendations for Older Adults
Vitamin D
Vitamins C and E
Vitamin A
Fluid Recommendations for Older Adults
Older Adults Have Many Unique Nutrition-Related Concerns
Obesity and Underweight
Dental Health Issues
Age-Related Eye Diseases
Interactions Between Medications and Nutrition
Financial Problems
Study plan MasteringNutrition™
Test Yourself | Answers
review questions
math review
web links
in depth 15.5 Searching for the Fountain of Youth
learning outcomes
Does calorie restriction increase life span?
Calorie Restriction May Reduce Production of Free Radicals
Calorie Restriction Presents Significant Challenges
Alternatives to Calorie Restriction Show Similar Benefits
Can supplements slow aging?
Are your actions today promoting a longer, healthier life?
web links
Appendix A 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines, Dietary Reference Intakes, and Dietary Guidelines Recommendations
Appendix B Calculations and Conversions
Calculation and Conversion Aids
Commonly Used Metric Units
International Units
Retinol Activity Equivalents
Conversion Factors
Length: U.S. and Metric Equivalents
Weights and Measures
Food Measurement Equivalencies from U.S. to Metric
U.S. Food Measurement Equivalents
Volumes and Capacities
Energy Units
Temperature Standards
Temperature Scales
To Convert Fahrenheit to Celsius:
To Convert Celsius to Fahrenheit:
Appendix C Foods Containing Caffeine
Cake, Cookies, and Desserts
Appendix D U.S. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning
Starch List
Icon Key
Fruit List
Icon Key
Milk and Yogurts
Sweets, Desserts, and Other Carbohydrates List
Icon Key
Nonstarchy Vegetable List
Icon Key
Meat and Meat Substitutes List
Icon Key
Plant-Based Proteins
Icon Key
Fat List
Icon Key
Free Foods List
Icon Key
Icon Key
Combination Foods List
Icon Key
Fast Foods Lista
Icon Key
Alcohol List
Appendix E Stature-for-Age Charts
Appendix F The USDA Food Guide Evolution
Early History of Food Guides
Contemporary Food Guides: From Pyramid to Plate
answers Answers to Review Questions
Chapter 1
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 2
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 3
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 4
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 5
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 6
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 7
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Math Review
Chapter 8
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 9
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 10
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 11
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 12
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 13
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 14
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 15
Review Questions
Math Review
Chapter 1
Chapter 1.5
Chapter 2
Chapter 2.5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3.5
Chapter 4
Chapter 4.5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5.5
Chapter 6
Chapter 6.5
Chapter 7
Chapter 7.5
Chapter 8
Chapter 8.5
Chapter 9
Chapter 9.5
Chapter 10
Chapter 10.5
Chapter 11
Chapter 11.5
Chapter 12
Chapter 12.5
Chapter 13
Chapter 13.5
Chapter 14
Chapter 14.5
Chapter 15
Chapter 15.5
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