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Test bank for Nursing Research in Canada Methods Critical Appraisal and Utilization 3rd Canadian Edition by Geri LoBiondo Wood
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Test bank for Nursing Research in Canada Methods Critical Appraisal and Utilization 3rd Canadian Edition by Geri LoBiondo Wood

Test bank for Nursing Research in Canada Methods Critical Appraisal and Utilization 3rd Canadian Edition by Geri LoBiondo Wood

The third edition of Nursing Research in Canada provides a comprehensive introduction to research concepts and methods. Easy to understand and set entirely within a Canadian context, this new edition examines the various roles of research in nursing, application and analysis, and coverage of evidence-informed practice. The companion study guide allows students to further practice and hone the critiquing skills discussed in the textbook.

Table of Contents

Front Matter
Author Biographies
Canadian Editors
Contributors
Reviewers
Acknowledgements
Preface
To the Student
Part One Research Overview
Research Overview
Research Vignette How Nurses Use and Respond to Research
Chapter 1 The Role of Research in Nursing
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Significance of Research and Evidence-Informed Practice in the Field of Nursing
Research: the Element That Links Theory, Education, and Practice
Practical Application
Roles of the Nurse in the Research Process
Historical Perspective*
Nineteenth Century
Twentieth Century
Box 1-1 Historical Milestones in the Development of Nursing Research
Box 1-2 Nursing Research National Organizations*
TABLE 1-1 RESEARCH THEMES IN CANADA
Future Directions
Promoting Depth in Nursing Research
An International Perspective
Research Priorities
Box 1-3 Canadian Nursing Research Priorities
Priority 1: Nursing Practice
Priority 2: Outcomes
Priority 3: Enhanced Links Between Research and Practice
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
The Nature of Knowledge
FIGURE 2-1 Knowledge development process.
FIGURE 2-2 Nursing knowledge.
Philosophies of Research
TABLE 2-1 BASIC BELIEFS OF RESEARCH PARADIGMS
Helpful Hint
Helpful Hint
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Selecting a Research Process
Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative
FIGURE 2-3 Qualitative research process.
FIGURE 2-4 Quantitative research process.
Introduction to Frameworks for Research
FIGURE 2-5 Model of conceptual foundation.
FIGURE 2-6 Attentively embracing story.
TABLE 2-2 ISSUES AFFECTING BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE AND RELATED RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Links Connecting Practice, Theory, and Research
FIGURE 2-7 Discipline knowledge: the theory-practice-research connection.
Helpful Hint
Frameworks as Structures for Research
The Ladder of Abstraction
FIGURE 2-8 Ladder of abstraction for evaluating research frameworks.
Helpful Hint
Frameworks, Theories, and Concepts
Theories
Concepts
Hypothesis and Variables
Frameworks
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Choosing a Theoretical Path
Helpful Hint
Appraising the Evidence
The Framework
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 3 Critical Reading Strategies: Overview of the Research Process
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
TABLE 3-1 STEPS OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS AND JOURNAL FORMAT: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Critical Thinking and Critical Reading Skills
TABLE 3-2 STEPS OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS AND JOURNAL FORMAT: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Box 3-1 Highlights of Critical Reading Process Strategies
Strategies for Preliminary Understanding
Strategies for Comprehensive Understanding
Strategies for Analysis Understanding
Strategies for Synthesis Understanding
Practical Application
Example of Critical Appraisal Reading Strategies*
Helpful Hint
Strategies for Critiquing Research Studies
Overcoming Barriers: Useful Critiquing Strategies
Evidence-Informed Practice and Research
FIGURE 3-1 Levels of evidence: Hierarchy for rating levels of evidence, associated with a study’s design. Evidence is assessed at a level according to its source.
Research Articles: Format and Style
FIGURE 3-2 Evidence-informed practice steps.
Abstract
Helpful Hint
Introduction
Definition of the Purpose
Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
Hypothesis or Research Question
Research Design
Sampling
Reliability and Validity
Helpful Hint
Procedures and Data-Collection Methods
Data Analysis/Results
Discussion
Recommendations and Implications
References
Communicating Results
Helpful Hint
Systematic Reviews: Meta-Analyses, Integrative Reviews, and Meta-Syntheses
Clinical Guidelines
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 4 Developing Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Clinical Questions
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Developing and Refining A Research Question: Study Perspective
Defining the Research Question
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Beginning the Literature Review
TABLE 4-1 HOW PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE, SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, AND UNTESTED THEORY INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH IDEA
Box 4-1 Development of A Research Hypothesis
Idea Emerges
Brainstorming
Literature Review
Variables
Research Question
Helpful Hint
Examining Significance
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Determining Feasibility
The Fully Developed Research Question
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Variables
Population
TABLE 4-2 RESEARCH QUESTION FORMAT
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Testability
TABLE 4-3 COMPONENTS OF THE RESEARCH QUESTION AND RELATED CRITERIA
Helpful Hint
Study Purpose, Aims, or Objectives
Box 4-2 Examples of Purpose Statements
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Developing the Research Hypothesis
FIGURE 4-1 Interrelationships of the research question, literature review, theoretical framework, and hypothesis.
Helpful Hint
Characteristics
Relationship Statement
Testability
Helpful Hint
Theory Base
Wording the Hypothesis
Statistical versus Research Hypotheses
Directional versus Nondirectional Hypotheses
TABLE 4-4 EXAMPLES OF HOW TO WORD A HYPOTHESIS
TABLE 4-5 EXAMPLES OF STATISTICAL (NULL) HYPOTHESES
Relationship AMONG the Hypothesis, the Research Question, and the Research Design
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Determining the Type of Hypothesis or Readiness for Hypothesis Testing
Developing and Refining A Clinical Question: A Consumer’s Perspective
Box 4-3 PICOT Components of A Clinical Question
Practical Application
TABLE 4-6 ELEMENTS OF A CLINICAL QUESTION
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Box 4-4 Examples of Clinical Questions
Critiquing the Research Question
Critiquing the Hypotheses
Appraising the Evidence
The Research Question and Hypotheses
Critiquing Criteria
The Research Question
The Hypotheses
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 5 Finding and Appraising the Literature
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
FIGURE 5-1 Relationship of the literature review to theory, research, education, and practice.
The Conceptual or Theoretical Framework
Review of the Literature
The Literature Review: The Researcher’s Perspective
Box 5-1 Overall Purposes of a Literature Review
Major Goal
Objectives
TABLE 5-1 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES
FIGURE 5-2 Relationship of the review of the literature to the steps of the quantitative research process.
The Literature Review: The Consumer Perspective
Practical Application
Research Conduct and Consumer of Research Purposes: Differences and Similarities
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Searching for Evidence
TABLE 5-2 STEPS AND STRATEGIES FOR CONDUCTING A LITERATURE SEARCH
Prioritizing the Search for Evidence
FIGURE 5-3 The 6S levels of organization of evidence from health care research.
Helpful Hint
Performing an Online Database Search
Why Use an Online Database?
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Search for Evidence Thought Flow
Types of Resources
Print: Books, Journals, and Indexes
Print: Refereed Journals
Internet: Online Bibliographic and Abstract Databases
Internet: Online Secondary or Summary Databases
Internet: Online Search Engines
Box 5-2 Online Databases
American College of Physicians: the Physicians’ Information and Education Resource (Pier)
Clinical Evidence From the British Medical Journal
Cochrane Library
Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (Cinahl)
Education Resource Information Center (Eric)
Excerpta Medica
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online)
Proquest Dissertations and Theses
Psycinfo
Scopus
TABLE 5-3 SELECTED EXAMPLES OF WEB SITES AND OUTCOMES FOR LITERATURE SEARCHES
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
How Far Back Must the Search Go?
Helpful Hint
FIGURE 5-4 Illustration of a search screen obtained when the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) via EBSCO interface is used to locate Wong and colleagues’ (2010) article on the decisional involvement of senior nurse leaders.
What Do I Need to Know?
Box 5-3 Tips
Using CINAHL via EBSCO
Helpful Hint
How Do I Complete the Search?
Helpful Hint
Literature Review Format: What to Expect
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Helpful Hint
Appraising the Evidence
Review of the Literature
Critiquing Criteria
Helpful Hint
Box 5-4 Characteristics of A Well-Written Review of the Literature
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 6 Legal and Ethical Issues
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Ethical and Legal Considerations IN Research: A Historical Perspective
Past Ethical Dilemmas in Research
Box 6-1 Articles of the Nuremberg Code
Box 6-2 Basic Ethical Principles Relevant to the Conduct of Research
Respect for Persons
Beneficence
Justice
TABLE 6-1 HIGHLIGHTS OF UNETHICAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
TABLE 6-2 PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Helpful Hint
Current and Future Ethical Dilemmas in Research
The Evolution of Ethics IN Nursing Research
Protection of Human Rights
Procedures for Protecting Basic Human Rights
Informed Consent
Box 6-3 Elements of Informed Consent
Helpful Hint
FIGURE 6-1 Example of an informed consent form for a quantitative study. ISMP, Institute for Safe Medication Practices; UHN, University Health Network. Example of an informed consent form for a quantitative study.
FIGURE 6-2 Example of an informed consent form for a qualitative study. Example of an informed consent form for a qualitative study.
Helpful Hint
Research Ethics Boards
Box 6-4 Canadian NURSES Association’s Ethical Research Guidelines for Registered NURSES
Guideline 1: Promoting Safe, Compassionate, Competent, and Ethical Care
Implementation
Guideline 2: Promoting Health and Well-Being
Implementation
Guideline 3: Promoting and Respecting Informed DECISION MAKING
Implementation
Guideline 4: Preserving Dignity
Implementation
Guideline 5: Maintaining Privacy and Confidentiality
Implementation
Guideline 6: Promoting Justice
Implementation
Guideline 7: Being Accountable
Implementation
Box 6-5 Partial Guidelines for Research Ethics Board Approval of Research Studies
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Evaluating the Risk-Benefit Ratio of a Research Study
Protecting the Basic Human Rights of Vulnerable Groups
Helpful Hint
Research Involving Aboriginal People
Scientific Fraud and Misconduct
Fraud
Misconduct
Unauthorized Research
Product Testing
Legal and Ethical Aspects of Animal Experimentation
Research Involving Human Gametes, Embryos, or Fetuses
Appraising the Evidence
The Legal and Ethical Aspects of a Research Study
Critiquing Criteria
Practical Application
Practical Application
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Part Two Qualitative Research
Qualitative Research
Research Vignette Creating Qualitatively Derived Knowledge for a Practice Discipline
Chapter 7 Introduction to Qualitative Research
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
What Is Qualitative Research?
What Do Qualitative Researchers Believe?
Helpful Hint
FIGURE 7-1 Shifting perspectives: seeing the world as others see it.
Does the Methodology Fit with the Research Question Being Asked?
Box 7-1 Steps in the Qualitative Research Process
Components of a Qualitative Research Report
Review of the Literature
Study Design
Sample
Setting: Recruitment and Data Collection
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Findings
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice
TABLE 7-1 KEARNEY’S CATEGORIES OF QUALITATIVE FINDINGS,* FROM LEAST TO MOST COMPLEX
TABLE 7-2 KEARNEY’S MODES OF CLINICAL APPLICATION FOR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH*
Qualitative Approach and Nursing Science
Issues in Qualitative Research
Ethics
FIGURE 7-2 Qualitative approach and nursing science.
Naturalistic Setting
TABLE 7-3 CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH THAT GENERATE ETHICAL CONCERNS
Emergent Nature of the Design
Researcher-Participant Interaction
Helpful Hint
Researcher as Instrument
Triangulation
TABLE 7-4 TYPES OF MULTIMETHOD DESIGNS
TABLE 7-5 RESEARCH USING MULTIMETHOD APPROACHES
Synthesizing Qualitative Evidence: Metasynthesis
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Foundation of Qualitative Research
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 8 Qualitative Approaches to Research
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Qualitative Research Methods
FIGURE 8-1 Continuum of philosophical foundations and qualitative research methods.
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Selecting a Qualitative Research Method
Phenomenological Method
Identifying the Phenomenon
Structuring the Study
Research Question
Researcher’s Perspective
Helpful Hint
Helpful Hint
Sample Selection
Helpful Hint
Data Gathering
Data Analysis
Describing the Findings
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Narrative Analysis
Practical Application
Orientational Qualitative Inquiry
Grounded Theory Method
Box 8-1 Major Premises of Grounded Theory
Identifying the Phenomenon
Structuring the Study
Research Question
Researcher’s Perspective
Sample Selection
Data Gathering
Data Analysis
Describing the Findings
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Helpful Hint
Ethnographic Method
FIGURE 8-2 Keeping vigil over the patient.
Identifying the Phenomenon
Structuring the Study
Research Question
Researcher’s Perspective
Sample Selection
Data Gathering
Data Analysis
Describing the Findings
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Case Study Method
Identifying the Phenomenon
Structuring the Study
Research Question
Researcher’s Perspective
Sample Selection
Data Gathering
Data Analysis and Describing Findings
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Historical Research Method
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Box 8-2 Establishing Fact, Probability, and Possibility with the Historical Method
Fact
Probability
Possibility
Participatory Action Research
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Identifying the Phenomenon
Structuring the Study
Research Question
Researcher’s Perspective
Sample Selection
Data Gathering
Data Analysis
Describing the Findings
Qualitative Approach: Nursing Methodology
TABLE 8-1 NURSING RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
Appraising the Evidence
Qualitative Research
Critiquing Criteria
Qualitative Approaches
Identifying the Phenomenon
Structuring the Study
Research Question
Researcher’s Perspective
Sample Selection
Data Gathering
Data Analysis
Describing the Findings
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Part Three Quantitative Research
Quantitative Research
Research Vignette Tackling the Prevention of Falls Among Older Adults
Chapter 9 Introduction to Quantitative Research
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
FIGURE 9-1 Interrelationships of design, problem statement, literature review, theoretical framework, and hypothesis.
Purpose of the Research Design
Practical Application
Objectivity in the Conceptualization of the Problem
Helpful Hint
Accuracy
Feasibility
Practical Application
TABLE 9-1 PRAGMATIC CONSIDERATIONS IN DETERMINING THE FEASIBILITY OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM
Control
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Homogeneous Sampling
Helpful Hint
Constancy in Data Collection
Manipulation of the Independent Variable
Helpful Hint
Randomization
Quantitative Control and Flexibility
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Internal and External Validity
Box 9-1 Threats to Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Internal Validity
History Threats
Maturation Effects
Testing Effects
TABLE 9-2 EXAMPLES OF INTERNAL VALIDITY THREATS
Instrumentation Threats
Mortality
Selection Bias
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
External Validity
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Potential Threats to a Study’s Validity
Selection Effects
Reactive Effects
Measurement Effects
Helpful Hint
Appraising the Evidence
Quantitative Research
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 10 Experimental and Quasiexperimental Designs
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Experimental and Quasiexperimental Design
Box 10-1 Summary of Experimental and Quasiexperimental Research Designs
Experimental Designs
Quasiexperimental Designs
True Experimental Design
Randomization
Control
Manipulation
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Types of Experimental Designs
FIGURE 10-1 Comparison of experimental designs.
Practical Application
Helpful Hint
Field and Laboratory Experiments
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Experimental Design
Quasiexperimental Designs
Types of Quasiexperimental Designs
FIGURE 10-2 Comparison of quasiexperimental designs.
Helpful Hint
Practical Application
Helpful Hint
Advantages and Disadvantages of Quasiexperimental Designs
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Evaluation Research and Experimentation
Helpful Hint
Appraising the Evidence
Experimental and Quasiexperimental Designs
Critiquing Criteria
Experimental Designs
Quasiexperimental Designs
Evaluation Research
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 11 Nonexperimental Designs
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
FIGURE 11-1 Continuum of quantitative research designs.
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Nonexperimental Design Choices
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Box 11-1 Summary of Nonexperimental Research Designs
Survey Studies
Relationship/Difference Studies
Survey Studies
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Relationship/Difference Studies
Correlational Studies
Developmental Studies
TABLE 11-1 EXAMPLES OF STUDIES WITH MORE THAN ONE DESIGN LABEL
Cross-Sectional Studies
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Longitudinal or Prospective Studies
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Retrospective or Ex Post Facto Studies
TABLE 11-2 PARADIGM FOR THE EX POST FACTO DESIGN
Helpful Hint
Helpful Hint
Prediction and Causality in Nonexperimental Research
Practical Application
Practical Application
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Additional Types of Quantitative Studies
Methodological Research
Meta-analysis
TABLE 11-3 COMMON CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT TOOLS
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Secondary Analysis
Epidemiological Studies
Helpful Hint
Appraising the Evidence
Nonexperimental Designs
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Part Four Processes Related to Research
Processes Related to Research
Research Vignette Developing and Implementing a Framework for Interprofessional Education in Health Sciences Education: Can Nursing Contribute?
References
Chapter 12 Sampling
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Sampling Concepts
Population
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Samples and Sampling
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Types of Samples
Helpful Hint
Nonprobability Sampling
TABLE 12-1 SUMMARY OF SAMPLING STRATEGIES
Convenience Sampling
Quota Sampling
TABLE 12-2 NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF STUDENTS IN STRATA OF A QUOTA SAMPLE OF 5000 GRADUATES OF NURSING PROGRAMS IN A PARTICULAR CITY
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Probability Sampling
Simple Random Sampling
FIGURE 12-1 A table of random numbers.
Stratified Random Sampling
FIGURE 12-2 Participant selection through the use of a proportional stratified random sampling strategy.
Practical Application
Multistage Sampling (Cluster Sampling)
Practical Application
Systematic Sampling
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Special Sampling Strategies
Nonprobability Sampling Strategies Used in Qualitative Research
Network Sampling
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Assessing the Relationship between the Type of Sampling Strategy and the Appropriate Generalizability
Purposive Sampling
Theoretical Sampling
Helpful Hint
Sample Size: Quantitative
TABLE 12-3 COMPARISON OF POPULATION AND SAMPLE VALUES AND AVERAGES IN STUDY OF SLEEPING PILL CONSUMPTION
Sample Size: Qualitative
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Sampling Procedures
FIGURE 12-3 Summary of the general sampling procedures.
Helpful Hint
Appraising the Evidence
Sample
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 13 Data-Collection Methods
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Measuring Variables of Interest
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Data Collection Methods
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Types of Data-Collection Methods
Physiological or Biological Measurements
Observational Methods
Practical Application
FIGURE 13-1 Types of observational roles in research.
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Helpful Hint
Interviews and Questionnaires
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
FIGURE 13-2 Examples of close-ended and open-ended questions.
Helpful Hint
Records or Available Data
Online and Computerized Methods of Data Collection
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Construction of New Instruments
Helpful Hint
Appraising the Evidence
Data-Collection Methods
Critiquing Criteria
Data-Collection Methods
Physiological Measurement
Observational Methods
Interviews
Questionnaires
Available Data and Records
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 14 Rigour in Research
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Reliability
Box 14-1 Internet Resources for Accessing and Evaluating The Validity and Reliability of Measurement Instruments*
Interpretation of the Reliability Coefficient
Stability
Box 14-2 Measures Used to Test Reliability
Stability
Homogeneity
Equivalence
Test-Retest Reliability
Parallel- or Alternate-Form Reliability
Helpful Hint
Homogeneity, or Internal Consistency
Helpful Hint
Item-to-Total Correlation
TABLE 14-1 EXAMPLES OF ITEM-TO-TOTAL CORRELATIONS FROM COMPUTER-GENERATED DATA
Split-Half Reliability
Kuder-Richardson Coefficient
Cronbach’s Alpha
Helpful Hint
TABLE 14-2 CRONBACH’S ALPHASCORES FOR THE FOUR OPTIONS OF THE TREATMENT AND PREFERENCES MEASURE
Box 14-3 Examples of Reported Cronbach’s Alpha
FIGURE 14-1 Examples of portions of Likert-type scales.
Equivalence
Interrater Reliability
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Parallel- or Alternate-Form Reliability
Validity
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Content Validity
Practical Application
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Criterion-Related Validity
Construct Validity
Hypothesis-Testing Approach
Convergent and Divergent Approaches
TABLE 14-3 ESTIMATED LISREL PARAMETERS OF CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
Contrasted-Groups Approach
TABLE 14-4 RESULTS OF REPEATED-MEASURES ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR MEAN “MOM AND BABY” DIMENSION SCORES BY TIME* AND PARITY†
Factor-Analytical Approach
Helpful Hint
TABLE 14-5 CAREER SEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE FACTORS AND HIGHEST FACTOR LOADINGS ON NURSING ITEMS: POPULATIONS BEFORE NURSING STUDY
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Determining the Appropriate Type of Validity and Reliability Selected for a Study
FIGURE 14-2 Components of observed scores.
Rigour in Qualitative Research: Credibility, Auditability, and Fittingness
TABLE 14-6 CRITERIA FOR JUDGING SCIENTIFIC RIGOUR: CREDIBILITY, AUDITABILITY, FITTINGNESS
Credibility
Auditability and Fittingness
Practical Application
Appraising the Evidence
Reliability and Validity
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 15 Qualitative Data Analysis
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Audio Recording Interviews
Data Management
Overview of Data Analysis
FIGURE 15-1 Stages of data analysis.
Data Reduction
TABLE 15-1 DOING ABSTRACTION IN THREE DIFFERENT METHODS
TABLE 15-2 CODE ASSIGNMENTS AS DESCRIBED BY WUEST AND COLLEAGUES
TABLE 15-3 CAMERON’S (2005) CODING SCHEME
Data Display
TABLE 15-4 SAMPLE CODING
TABLE 15-5 THEMES AND SUBTHEMES IN RESULTS FROM APPENDIX A
FIGURE 15-2 Subprocesses in strengthening capacity.
TABLE 15-6 EXAMPLES OF SELECTED QUOTATIONS TO SUPPORT THE THEMES FROM APPENDIX A
Conclusion Drawing and Verification
Specific Analytic Procedures
Trustworthiness
TABLE 15-7 METHODS OF ANALYSIS
Appraising the Evidence
Qualitative Data Analysis
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 16 Quantitative Data Analysis
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Descriptive Statistics
Levels of Measurement
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Descriptive Statistics
TABLE 16-1 LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT SUMMARY TABLE
Helpful Hint
Frequency Distribution
TABLE 16-2 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
Measures of Central Tendency
FIGURE 16-1 Frequency distributions. A, Histogram. B, Frequency polygon.
Mode
FIGURE 16-2 Histograms. A, Premature use of seat belts in children aged 3 to 11 years. B, Use of rear-facing safety seats in infants up to 12 months (N = 296).
Median
Mean
Helpful Hint
TABLE 16-3 SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR STUDY BY PROFETTO AND ASSOCIATES
Helpful Hint
Normal Distribution
FIGURE 16-3 The normal distribution and associated standard deviations.
Skewness
FIGURE 16-4 Positive and negative skew. A, Positive skew. B, Negative skew.
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Interpreting Measures of Variability
Helpful Hint
Range
Semiquartile Range
Percentile
Standard Deviation
TABLE 16-4 DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION OF CAREGIVER BY GENDER
TABLE 16-5 TESTS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS
TABLE 16-6 TESTS OF ASSOCIATION
Helpful Hint
Inferential Statistics
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Inferential Statistics—Difference Questions
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Inferential Statistics—Relationship Questions
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Hypothesis Testing
Helpful Hint
Probability
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Type I and Type II Errors
FIGURE 16-5 Outcome of statistical decision making.
Level of Significance
Helpful Hint
Practical and Statistical Significance
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Tests of Statistical Significance
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Tests of Differences
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Parametric Tests
Practical Application
Post Hoc Analysis
Helpful Hint
Nonparametric Tests
Tests of Relationships
FIGURE 16-6 Scatter plots illustrating the different types of correlations.
Practical Application
TABLE 16-7 UNIVARIATE ANALYSES: ODDS RATIOS FOR FOUR MENTAL HEALTH DIAGNOSES AMONG SAWMILL WORKERS, 1994 to 2001
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
The Use of Confidence Intervals
Helpful Hint
Harm Studies
TABLE 16-8 INTERPRETATION OF ODDS RATIOS
TABLE 16-9 ODDS RATIOS* FOR POSTNEONATAL MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL AGE GROUPS
Meta-analysis
FIGURE 16-7 Tabular display of systematic review with meta-analysis data. These data reflect the efficacy of administering a β-agonist by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a valved holding chamber (VHC) versus a nebulizer in children younger than 5 years who had acute exacerbation of wheezing or asthma in the emergency department on hospitalization. CI, confidence interval; OR: odds ratio.
Advanced Statistics
The Use of Statistics
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Example of the Use and Critique of Statistics
Appraising the Evidence
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Chapter 17 Presenting the Findings
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Critical Thinking Decision Path
Assessing Study Results
Findings
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Results
TABLE 17-1 EXAMPLES OF REPORTED STATISTICAL RESULTS
Helpful Hint
Box 17-1 Examples of Objective Statements in the Results Section
TABLE 17-2 DEMOGRAPHICS OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS
TABLE 17-3 CORRELATIONS AMONG VARIABLES REGARDING SENIOR NURSE LEADERS
TABLE 17-4 THEMES AND SUBTHEMES IN RESULTS FROM A STUDY ON PEER LEARNING
Helpful Hint
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Discussion of the Results
TABLE 17-5 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WORK-RELATED VIOLENT INCIDENTS AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Helpful Hint
Box 17-2 Examples of Research Recommendations and Practice Implications
Research Recommendations
Practice Implications
Appraising the Evidence
Results and Discussion
Critiquing Criteria
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Part Five Critiquing Research
Critiquing Research
Research Vignette Evolution in a Program of Research Focusing on Family Violence, Caregiving, and Women’s Health
Chapter 18 Critiquing Qualitative Research
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Stylistic Considerations
Application of Qualitative Research Findings in Practice
Box 18-1 Critiquing Guidelines for Qualitative Research
Statement of the Phenomenon of Interest (Chapter 4)
Purpose (Chapter 4)
Method (Chapter 8)
Sampling (Chapter 12)
Data Collection (Chapters 7, 8, and 13)
Data Analysis (Chapters 14 and 15)
Credibility
Auditability
Fittingness
Findings (Chapters 7 and 17)
Conclusion, Implications, and Recommendations (Chapter 17)
Box 18-2 CRITIQUING Guidelines for Research Conducted with THE Grounded Theory Method
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Critique 1 Critiquing a Qualitative Research Study
Immunizing Children Who Fear and Resist Needles: Is It a Problem for Nurses?
Background
Method
Results
Introduction
Literature Review
Fear of Needles
Non-Helpful and Helpful Adult Responses
Nurse Stress
The Research Approach
Theme One: Nurses Experience Stress When Immunizing Children Who Fear and Resist Needle Injection
Theme Two: the Strength of Child Resistance as well as Some Adult Behavior Creates an Ethical Dilemma for Nurses
Theme Three: Some Adult Responses Make Immunizing More Difficult and Unsafe
Theme Four: Resources to Help Nurses Cope Effectively with These Situations are Inconsistent and Inadequate
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Introduction to Critique 1
Title
Abstract
Statement of the Phenomenon of Interest
Purpose
Method
Sampling
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Findings
Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
Critique 2 Critiquing a Qualitative Research Study
Women’s Decisions to Seek Treatment for the Symptoms of Potential Cardiac Illness
Clinical Relevance:
Keywords:
Methods
Setting
Sampling And Procedures
Data Analysis
Rigor
Findings
Embodied Knowing
Temporal Knowing
Rational Knowing
Relational Knowing
Discussion
Limitations
Implications for Nursing Practice
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Clinical Resources
References
Introduction to Critique 2
Title
Abstract
Focus/Topic
Purpose
Significance
Method
Sampling
Data Generation
Data Analysis
Empirical Grounding of the Study Findings
Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
Evidence-Informed Practice Tip
Critical Thinking Challenges
For Further Study
References
Chapter 19 Critiquing Quantitative Research
Learning Outcomes
Key Term
Study Resources
Box 19-1 Major Content Sections of a Research Report and Related Critiquing Guidelines
Problem statement and purpose (see Chapter 4)
Review of the literature and theoretical framework (see Chapters 2 and 5)
Hypotheses or research questions (see Chapter 4)
Sample (see Chapter 12)
Research design (see Chapters 10 to 11)
Internal validity (see Chapter 9)
External validity (see Chapter 9)
Research approach (see Chapters 7 and 11)
Methods (see Chapter 13)
Legal/ethical issues (see Chapter 6)
Instruments (see Chapter 13)
Reliability and validity (see Chapter 14)
Analysis of data (see Chapters 15 and 16)
Conclusions, implications, and recommendations
Application and utilization (see Chapter 20)
Stylistic Considerations
Critique 1 Critiquing A Quantitative Research Study
Older Adults’ Awareness of Community Health and Support Services for Dementia Care
Keywords
Dementia
Community Health and Support Services
Literature Review
Method
Study Setting
Vignette Methodology
Data Collection
Sample Size
TABLE 19C1-1 VIGNETTES
Data Analysis
TABLE 19C1-2 CATEGORIES OF PARTICIPANT RESPONSES TO VIGNETTES
Results
Participants
Services and Supports Identified by Participants
TABLE 19C1-3 DEMOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF PARTICIPANTS
FIGURE 19C1-1 Percentage of respondents stating where they would turn for help by first and multiple responses. [CSS: community support services; HHS: home health service; LTC: long-term care.]
Factors Associated with Identification of Sources of Help
Discussion
TABLE 19C1-4 LOGISTIC REGRESSION: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SUPPORT SERVICES AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH DETERMINANTS
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Introduction to Critique 1
Title
Abstract
Problem and Purpose
Review of Literature and Definitions
Development of a Conceptual Framework
Hypotheses and Research Question
Sample
Research Design
Internal Validity
External Validity
Legal/Ethical Issues
Instruments
Reliability and Validity
Analysis and Findings of the Data
Discussion
Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
Critique 2 Critiquing A Quantitative Research Study
Self-Harm Intentions: Can They Be Distinguished Based Upon a History of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse?
Keywords:
Background
Literature Review
Association Between CP/SA and Self-Harm/Suicidal Behaviour
Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse
Conceptualization of Suicide and Self-Harm Intention
Sociological Risk Factors
Suicide Intention
Depression
Hopelessness
Affect Regulation
Dissociation
Research Hypotheses
Method
Data Analysis
Results
TABLE 19C2-1 INSTRUMENTS, SCORING METHODS, AND RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Introduction to Critique 2
Title
Abstract
Problem and Purpose
Review of Literature and Definitions
Theoretical Framework
Hypotheses and Research Question
Sample
Research Design
Internal Validity
External Validity
Legal/Ethical Issues
Instruments
Reliability and Validity
Results
Discussion
Limitations and Conclusion
Critical Thinking Challenges
For Further Study
References
Part Six Application of Research: Evidence-Informed Practice
Application of Research: Evidence-Informed Practice
Research Vignette Nursing Best Practices
Chapter 20 Developing an Evidence-Informed Practice
Learning Outcomes
Key Terms
Study Resources
Overview of Evidence-Informed Practice
FIGURE 20-1 Model of the relationship among conduct, dissemination, and use of research.
Use of Evidence in Practice
Models of Evidence-Informed Practice
The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care
FIGURE 20-2 The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care.
FIGURE 20-3 The Ottawa Model of Health Care Research Use.
The Ottawa Model of Research Use
Steps of Evidence-Informed Practice
Selection of a Topic
Box 20-1 Selection Criteria for An EVIDENCE-Informed Practice Project
TABLE 20-1 TOOL TO USE IN SELECTING A TOPIC* FOR EVIDENCE-INFORMED PRACTICE
Helpful Hint
Forming a Team
FIGURE 20-4 Characteristics of stakeholders (resistors and facilitators).
Evidence Retrieval
TABLE 20-2 PICOT: COMPONENTS OF AN ANSWERABLE, SEARCHABLE QUESTION
Schemas for Grading the Evidence
TABLE 20-3 EXAMPLES OF EVIDENCE-INFORMED PRACTICE RATING SYSTEMS
Critique of Evidence-Informed Practice Guidelines
Critique of Research
Helpful Hint
Synthesis of the Research
Setting Forth Evidence-Informed Practice Recommendations
TABLE 20-4 EXAMPLE OF A SUMMARY TABLE FOR RESEARCH CRITIQUES
Box 20-2 Consistency of Evidence from Critiqued Research and Appraisals of Evidence-Informed Practice Guidelines
Helpful Hint
Decision to Change Practice
Development of Evidence-Informed Practice
Helpful Hint
Implementing the Practice Change
Box 20-3 Key Questions for Focus Groups
Nature of the Innovation/Evidence-Informed Practice
FIGURE 20-5 Implementation model.
Methods of Communication
FIGURE 20-6 Quick reference guide: assessment of acute pain in older adults.
Box 20-4 Role Expectations of An Opinion Leader
Evaluation
Box 20-5 Steps of Evaluation for EVIDENCE-Informed Practice
TABLE 20-5 EXAMPLES OF EVALUATION MEASURES
Creating a Culture of Evidence-Informed Practice
Helpful Hint
FIGURE 20-7 Four major building blocks in the process of creating a culture of evidence-informed practice.
Translation Science
Future Directions
Critical Thinking Challenges
Key Points
For Further Study
References
Appendixes
Appendix A Understanding Nursing on an Acute Stroke Unit: Perceptions of Space, Time and Interprofessional Practice
Introduction
Background
The Study
Aim
Methodology
Participants and Setting
Data Collection
Ethical Considerations
Data Analysis
Reflexivity
Findings
Space
Nursing in a Submarine
Nursing Too Close
Nursing Under a State of “Code Burgundy”
Time
Lack of Time
Preserving Time
Time With and Without Space
Interprofessional Practice
Relationships Between Stroke Professionals
Communication and Collaboration
Discussion
Study Limitations
Space and Time
Interprofessional Practice
Conclusion
What Is Already Known About This Topic
What This Paper Adds
Implications for Practice and/or Policy
Acknowledgement
Funding
Conflict of Interest
Author Contributions
References
Appendix B Decisional Involvement of Senior Nurse Leaders in Canadian Acute Care Hospitals
Introduction
Literature Review
SNL Role Changes with Restructuring
SNL Role in Organizational Decision-Making
Theoretical Framework
FIGURE B-1 Participation in organizational decision making.
Hypotheses
Methods
Sample and Data Collection Procedures
Instrument
TABLE B-1 COMPARISON OF RESPONSE RATES
FIGURE B-2 Excerpt from SNL decision-making survey.
Data Analyses
Results
Demographics
TABLE B-2 DEMOGRAPHICS
Descriptive Results
SNL Perceptions of Decisional Involvement
TABLE B-3 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF DECISIONAL INVOLVEMENT SUBSCALES
TABLE B-4 FREQUENCY, MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF DECISION MECHANISMS
CEO Perceptions of the SNL Decisional Involvement
Correlations Among Major Study Variables
Test of Hypotheses
TABLE B-5 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG SNL TIMING, BREADTH OF CONTENT EXPERTISE, NUMBER OF DECISION ACTIVITIES, DECISION INFLUENCE AND QUALITY OF DECISIONS
Discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix C The Effect of Music on Parental Participation During Pediatric Laceration Repair
Introduction
Literature Review
Purpose
Methods and Materials
Design
Sample
Intervention
Instruments
Parental Participation
Procedure Behavior Check List
Results
TABLE C-1 DEMOGRAPHIC AND PROCEDURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERVENTION AND CONTROL GROUPS
TABLE C-2 DISTRESS SCORE DATA: TREATMENT GROUP BY PARENTAL PRESENCE (DISTRESS SCORES 0–100)
Discussion
Practice Implications
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Appendix D Patient Real-Time and 12-Month Retrospective Perceptions of Difficult Communications in the Cancer Diagnostic Period*
Abstract
Background to the Literature
Study Method
Findings
The Dynamics of Difficult Communications
Indirect Messages
Disrespectful or Unprofessional Manner
Failure to Individualize
Inappropriate Nature or Quantity of Information
Reflections a Year Later
Discussion
Conclusions
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
Funding
References
Glossary
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
V
W
Z
Index
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
Z
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