The first integrated program designed specifically for the critical thinking course, Moore & Parker’s Critical Thinking teaches students the skills they need in order to think for themselves-skills they will call upon in this course, in other college courses, and in the world that awaits. The authors’ practical and accessible approach illustrates core concepts with concrete real-world examples, extensive practice exercises, and a thoughtful set of pedagogical features. Connect and LearnSmart for Critical Thinking coalesce in a highly adaptive learning environment where each student gets the targeted help he or she needs for more efficient mastery of course concepts.
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Table of Contents
PART 1. INTRODUCTION
1. What Is Critical Thinking?
Claims and Critical Thinking
Issues and Arguments
Identifying the Issue
Settling an Issue Through Argument
Facts and Opinions
Objective and Subjective Claims
“Everyone’s Entitled . . .”
Beliefs, Opinions, Views, Convictions, Prejudices
A Note About Feelings
2. Critical Thinking and Clear Writing
Organization and Focus
Principles of Organization
Good Writing Practices
Essay Types to Avoid
Clarity in Writing
Claims That Make Comparisons
Writing in a Diverse Society
PART II. CLAIMS
3. Evaluating Informative Claims
Assessing the Content of the Claim
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations?
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information?
Assessing the Credibility of the Source
The News Media
Reporting the News
Who Listens to the News?
4. Persuasion Through Rhetoric
Rhetorical Devices and Techniques (Starters)
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Persuasive Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations
Primates of the Miocene
5. More Rhetorical Devices
The Subjectivist Fallacy
Appeal to Popularity (ad populum)
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Anger or Indignation
Two Wrongs Make a Right
6. More Pseudoreasoning and Other Rhetorical Plays
Circumstantial Ad Hominem
Poisoning the Well
Burden of Proof
Begging the Question
Explanations and Arguments
Explanations and Justifications
Kinds of Explanations
Spotting Weak Explanations
Freedom from Excessive Vagueness
Freedom from Unnecessary Assumptions
Consistency with Well-Established Theory
Absence of Alternative Explanations
Explanatory Comparisons (Analogies)
PART III. ARGUMENTS
8. Understanding and Evaluating Arguments
The Anatomy of Arguments
Good and Bad, Valid and Invalid, Strong and Weak
Deduction and Induction
Identifying Unstated Premises
Techniques for Understanding Arguments
Clarifying an Argument’s Structure
Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing
Do the Premises Support the Conclusion?
Are the Premises Reasonable?
9. Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic
Translation into Standard Form
The Square of Opposition
Three Categorical Operations
The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity
Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises
The Rules Method of Testing for Validity
10. Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic
Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols
Symbolizing Compound Claims
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences
11. Inductive Arguments
Representativeness and Bias
Everyday Inductive Generalizations
The Two Key Questions We Should Ask of Any Inductive
Playing by the Numbers
12. Causal Arguments
Causation Among Specific Events
Common Mistakes Found in Causal Reasoning
Possible Mistakes in Relevant-Difference Reasoning
Possible Mistakes in Common-Thread Reasoning
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Overlooking the Possibility of Coincidence
Questions to Ask About Causal Reasoning
Causation in Populations
Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments
Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies
Appeal to Anecdotal Evidence
13. Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning
Descriptive and Prescriptive Moral Claims
Consistency and Fairness
Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning
Legal Reasoning and Moral Reasoning Compared
Two Types of Legal Studies: Justifying Laws and Interpreting Laws
The Role of Precedent in Legal Reasoning
Eight Aesthetic Principles
Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value
Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth
Why Reason Aesthetically?
Appendix 1: Conflicting Claims
Appendix 2: Analytic Claims
Appendix 3: Some Common Patterns of Deductive
Answers, Suggestions, and Tips for Triangle Exercises
Essays for Analysis
Selection 1: Cynthia Tucker, Death Penalty Has No Place in U.S.
Selection 2: Richard Parker, Hetero by Choice?
Selection 3: Bonnie and Clyde
Selection 4: EDWARD C. KRUG, Will Ozone Blob Devour the Earth?
Selection 5a: USA TODAY, Equal Treatment Is Real Issue—Not Marriage
Selection 5b: THE REV. LOUIS P. SHELDON, Gay Marriage “Unnatural”
Selection 6a: USA Today, Latest Ruling Is Good Scout Model
Selection 6b: Larry P. Arnn, Decision Assaults Freedom
Selection 7: Enterprise-Record, Is God Part of Integrity?
Selection 8: DON EDWARDS, Shorten Federal Jail Time
Selection 9a: USA TODAY, Clean Needles Benefit Society
Selection 9b: PETER B. GEMMA JR., Programs Don’t Make Sense
Selection 10a: USA TODAY, Make Fast Food Smoke-Free
Selection 10b: BRENNAN M. DAWSON, Don’t Overreact to Smoke
Selection 11a: USA TODAY, Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses
Selection 11b: Buying or Selling Notes Is Wrong
Selection 12a: USA TODAY, Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws
Selection 12b: ALAN M. GOTTLIEB, Gun Laws Are No Answer
Selection 13a: USA TODAY, How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? Here’s How
Selection 13b: ARMSTRONG WILLIAMS, We Need More Prayer
Selection 14: BARBARA EHRENREICH, Planet of the White Guys
Selection 15: JOANNE JACOBS, Do Women Really Need Affirmative Action?
Selection 16: FOCUS ON THE FAMILY, In Defense of a Little Virginity
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